Are there racial differences in physical performance


More articles from the rubric
Prevention
Health behavior (smoking, diet, sport, etc.)


Minimum alcohol price lowers alcohol consumption (25.5.20)
Does Vitamin C Help Prevent or Treat Pneumonia? No, "insufficient" as with many other diseases! (5.5.20)
Obesity prevention for young risk groups does not achieve this, but predominantly German-speaking parents (6.12.19)
Where good advice on healthy eating is too expensive - for around 1.6 billion people worldwide! (11/11/19)
Does jogging or walking a little lower the risk of mortality and does the risk of death decrease with the length of jog? Yes No! (9/11/19)
Does the medical degree convey knowledge about nutritional behavior? No, or how the blind should teach the blind to see! (2.11.19)
18 years of education about "healthy and unhealthy nutrition" has only had little effect in the USA and then often only socially unequal (October 2nd, 2019)
Do long-term smokers reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease by stopping smoking? Yes and no, not completely even after 15 years! (8/26/19)
Do Diet Supplements Lower Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease / Mortality? With a few exceptions, not !!! (4.8.19)
Reduction or avoidance of work-related stress is evident among health workers through yoga and Qigong - but not others! (7/20/19)
Just before Easter, of all times: Eggs are back on the "Better not to eat" list! Difficulties in making informed decisions (8.4.19)
Exercise and health: it is rarely too little and too short to achieve positive health effects (20.3.19)
Health legends - The case of "table salt reduction" (8.11.18)
What do parents know about the sugar content of some of their children's favorite foods? Tremendously little. (27.2.18)
"If Anyone Is Going To Take Away Our Business It Should Be Us" - Why The Tobacco Industry Is Helping "Quit" Smoking! (20.2.18)
On the limits of the ability to learn or "social responsibility" of tobacco companies. Approval of iQOS in the USA and Germany (1.2.18)
"Can a single cigarette still be significantly harmful?" - Yes, much more than expected! (1/25/18)
"Stairway to health": Small hints help you decide whether to use the stairs instead of the elevator or escalator. (10/16/17)
It is seldom too late and seldom too little. Physical activity, mobility, disability and independence of 70-89 year olds (15.9.17)
Trust and hope in the long-term effect of subsidies and self-commitment is good, but permanent control is better (13.6.17)
The "glass of red wine" for dinner - "healthy skepticism" against benefits for heart health, rather good for quality of life (May 24th, 2017)
Graphic warnings on cigarette packets reduce tobacco consumption (7/11/2016)
Between under 20% to 70%: differences in cancer incidence and mortality that can be influenced by behavioral modifications (23.5.16)
Long telomeres mean longer life expectancy and healthy aging thanks to the Mediterranean diet !? (3.12.14)
"Milk perks up tired men", "Caution milk" or caution observational study? (2.11.14)
A lot of risk, a lot of education, little effect - sun protection and sunbed visits with US high school students 2001-2012 (8/26/14)
"At least twice a day", but how best is unclear or evidence-based tooth-brushing technique nil! (8/13/14)
How much does a smoking employee cost companies per year and what is the most expensive? (7/29/14)
"I have the right weight" - self-perception of many overweight and fat children in the USA differs from measured values ​​(7/24/14)
Tobacco smoking risk pyramid: active smoking, passive smoking and now also "third hand smoke" smoking (July 17, 2014)
Good times, bad times or how has the health behavior of young people in the USA developed since 1991? (6/15/14)
"Active and passive smoking endanger your health" - further evidence from multi-year comparisons in Switzerland (8.6.14)
Myth "healthy eating is expensive" or "too expensive" - ​​meta-analysis: how much more expensive than the unhealthy is it really? (12/30/13)
Evidence for the benefits of weight loss, exercise and muscle building as methods for patients with knee / hip osteoarthritis (16.12.13)
Does the notice "Smoking can kill" promote long-term sales or do warnings strengthen product trustworthiness? (4/10/13)
Re-smoking as a prevention? Moderate weight gain after quitting smoking does not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. (3/30/13)
Multi-stage smoking bans in Belgium are also associated with multi-stage reductions in the incidence of premature births. (3/11/13)
A touch of Sisyphus: Vitamin C does not prevent colds and has modest effects on their duration and severity. (21.2.13)
"Women who smoke like men also die like men" - 50-year trends in nicotine-associated mortality by gender (5.2.13)
"Demigods or demigods in white and green" are also people: health behavior and lifestyle of doctors and nurses (23.1.13)
Warning notice "Smoking causes fatal lung cancer" works better with tumor picture and reduces inequality of communication (18.1.13)
"Quit smoking" - but how best and most effective? (12/25/12)
Even those who only smoke "a few cigarettes to quit" have a high health risk of sudden cardiac death. (12/12/12)
Preventive effect of material incentives for school classes with 11 to 14 year olds not to start smoking = zero! (11/14/12)
When the "best" brings more bad than good. Unexpected effects of reducing salt. (11/11/12)
Caution: magic recipe: 11 years of lifestyle change (diet and exercise) of diabetics without "hard" success (23.10.12)
Enjoy your meal with regular fish meals: You can save the money for this by avoiding omega-3 dietary supplements. (9/27/12)
Those who sit a lot are dead longer (9/13/12)
"Use It or Lose It": Does a Cognitively Active Lifestyle Protect Against Alzheimer's? Yes, but partly different than expected and desired. (9.9.12)
Do fears and depression shorten life? (21.8.12)
What "weight" do seven behavioral and risk factors have on cardiovascular health? (7/10/12)
Only canned meat makes you sick - or does every type of meat consumption lead to higher mortality? (6.7.12)
Unequal physical performance in old age due to various disadvantages in previous life (11.6.12)
The myth of "good" cholesterol: causes and prevention of the risk of heart attack are more complex. (17.5.12)
The life expectancy of even fitter older adults depends largely on social vulnerability or social deficits (23.4.12)
Medical "referrals" of immobile persons in exercise programs are almost ineffective (18.4.12)
Overestimated role of school and nutrition there for obesity (3.4.12)
Increasing questionability of cholesterol levels as risk factors and the use of cholesterol-lowering drugs in the elderly (2.4.12)
Prevention of overweight and obesity is possible in 6-12 year old children - but requires complex measures (7.3.12)
How can interventions to increase physical activity among female students become more effective? (1.2.12)
More complex intervention for more physical activities in 75+ year olds is also effective 1 ½ years after the end of the intervention! (11/24/11)
Children are not only "cute", they can also save their fathers from cardiac death - the more children the better! (10/24/11)
"No future" for many through "futures" for a few. Facts on the undesirable effects of commodity futures, OTC swaps, etc. (18.10.11)
Which parents want to hear that their child is "very fat"? On the importance of the "wording" used by doctors for children who are not of normal weight (5.10.11)
Alcohol abuse in children and adolescents despite various preventive measures at a high level. What really helps? (7/28/11)
14 Country Report: Most smokers are familiar with warnings on cigarette packs and many of them are thinking of quitting! (31.5.11)
Why shouldn't older women rely on being able to reduce their risk of heart defects from grilled or fried fish? (29.5.11)
Believer and / or healthy, or how far are church leaders from the contraceptive practice of their believers? (4/30/11)
Vitamin D: "Vitamin of the year" or mostly unnecessary consumption with a tendency towards risky oversupply and incorrect supply? (10.2.11)
IDEFICS - An EU project for the prevention of obesity in children comes to an end in 2011 (5.2.11)
Prevention of obesity in children: Cochrane meta-analysis shows few specific effects (26.1.11)
Cranberry products and urinary tract infection prevention: natural, affordable, available without a prescription - but effective ???? (23.1.11)
Sport for the prevention of osteoporosis: Only effective in male adolescents (20.1.11)
Even in the harsh Norwegian winters, the ban on smoking in restaurants did not negatively affect their income! (5.1.11)
"Man is a social being" and almost always! What does this have to do with unsuccessful health education? (5.11.10)
English children's study: "Physical passivity does not make you fat, but overweight leads to passivity" (5.10.10)
Cycling and walking protect women (to a certain extent) from gaining weight (5.10.10)
Food from TV commercials: just plain unhealthy (1.8.10)
"Can that little smoke be dangerous?" - Brief information on the health risk "passive smoking" (20.7.10)
Physical activity required to maintain normal weight in the long term is higher than expected (3.6.10)
Alcohol: higher prices - fewer problems (May 18, 2010)
Corrected error: fruit and vegetables offer little or no protection against cancer (14.4.10)
Reducing the consumption of soft drinks by children and adolescents - no simple solutions (11.4.10)
Tax on junk food: good for your health (26.3.10)
Physical activity is helpful in preventing falls in the elderly (24.3.10)
Sport and physical activity: studies again prove the health-promoting effects in the elderly (22.3.10)
A healthy lifestyle is more effective than medication in preventing diabetes (21.2.10)
Questions about prevention: the majority of the population is of the opinion "We are not bothering the family doctor with this" (9.2.10)
10-minute intervention against excessive alcohol consumption has an effect on many students (29.12.09)
Mandatory alcohol tests for professional drivers lower the rate of fatal accidents (4.12.09)
"Smoking Guns" - Why did British American Tobacco destroy 60 proprietary documents in the US, Canada and Australia in 1992? (2.12.09)
Are smokers useful for the economy after all? Clarification from Austria (24.11.09)
Non-smoking programs at a hospital rescue station: Successful with motivated participants (November 9, 2009)
Physical fitness strengthens the cognitive abilities of older people (5.11.09)
Useful helpers: computers and the Internet as elements of non-smoking programs (1.11.09)
Women "think" differently than men: Even when deciding to quit smoking (11.10.09)
Scientific studies show: traffic light labeling is the most understandable for consumers (30.9.09)
Balance of interventions to promote sport and physical activity: How long does the effect last? (8/27/09)
EU study on alcohol consumption: The price of alcoholic beverages also influences the amount consumed (25.7.09)
Parents' influence on the eating behavior of their children is less than expected (14.7.09)
Instructions for smoking cessation by resident doctors: Successful and cost-saving (7/10/09)
On the misery of trying to "pull yourself by the belt" and quitting smoking: Addiction - and no lifestyle (7.7.09)
The Tobacco Atlas Germany provides information on (almost) everything related to tobacco and smoking (3.7.09)
Smoking cessation programs for adolescents: literature study provides information on how to optimize prevention (30.6.09)
Sport and physical activity also have health benefits for the elderly and former "couch potatoes" (20.6.09)
Meta-analysis shows: more sport in school is no guarantee of avoiding obesity in children (22.4.09)
"Healthy heart programs" for prevention have significantly less benefit for the general population than expected (5.4.09)
Scottish State Health System pays weekly cash bonuses to smokers who quit their vices (5/5/09)
Pregnancy and smoking: is it good to quit smoking while pregnant? (27.3.09)
Countries with little cycling and walking also have a greater problem of obesity (3/17/09)
Alcohol consumption in films and commercials encourages viewers to consume alcoholic beverages (9.3.09)
"Germany is moving!" ... or not. But eats a number of additional calories (2.3.09)
Regardless of whether the Atkins or Ornish diet, Weight Watchers or Mediterranean diets: all that is important is a low-calorie diet (28.2.09)
750 dollar bonus for smokers who give up their vice: financial incentives for abstaining from nicotine show effect in a US study (13.2.09)
Ban on television advertising by fast food restaurants would reduce the prevalence of obesity among children (9.2.09)
Sleep disorders and too little sleep increase the risk of colds by a factor of 3-5 (13.1.09)
More sport and physical activity can also be achieved in the long term - through medical prescription and personal care (11.1.09)
Avoiding and Losing Obesity: Is Diet Far More Important Than Exercise? (8.1.09)
Dollars versus pounds - financial rewards motivate people to tackle their obesity (at least temporarily) (4.1.09)
Lose weight by throwing in !? Weight loss with medication between euphoria, severe side effects and prohibition. (15.12.08)
Vitamins C and E, selenium and presumably many antioxidants with no preventive effect in prostate cancer. PSA testing problems! (12/10/08)
Healthy or unhealthy diet: the structure of the offerings in grocery stores and restaurants is also decisive (December 3, 2008)
If the alcohol price rises, consumption and alcohol-related deaths fall - and vice versa (11/28/08)
Smoking cessation on the occasion of a hospital stay: the success rates are considerable (11/27/08)
High prices for fruit and fresh vegetables are already noticeable in US schoolchildren's body weight (11/11/08)
Far too many calories - children's menus in fast food chains (9.11.08)
Driving is "cool", walking is dangerous. Attitudes of parents and children to different means of transport (7.11.08)
Finnish follow-up study: Smoking in advanced age sustainably lowers quality of life and life expectancy (1.11.08)
Antioxidant food supplements almost all of them are not suitable for the prevention of colon cancer or are even potentially dangerous (1.11.08)
Tar lung, larynx cancer, metastases in the throat: after Belgium, cigarette packs in England are now showing horror images (15.10.2008)
The passive smoker's leg: news on the vascular disease risks of passive smoking. (29.9.2008)
Overweight and obesity among young adults in the UK: intervene as early as possible in childhood. (July 14, 2008)
Weight Watchers versus Fitness Center: Which Weight Loss Measure is More Effective and Healthier? (July 6th, 2008)
Primary prevention: only smoking causes a guilty conscience today, other behavioral risks tend to be suppressed (June 13, 2008)
Health is contagious - not smoking is not a lonely decision (May 28, 2008)
"Too much salt is harmful to your health!" Another nutritional mistake uncovered? (May 17, 2008)
Strict smoking bans in US pubs and restaurants inhibit adolescents from becoming habitual smokers (May 8, 2008)
News from the smoking ban front: undesirable side effects, tricks and theatrical thunder (8 April 2008)
"Drink 1.5-2 liters of water daily!" There is no scientific evidence for this advice on a healthy lifestyle (7.4.2008)
"Health Hysteria!" - English media massively question recommendations on health behavior (13.1.2008)
Exercise and moderate alcohol consumption together are associated with a low overall risk of death and heart disease! (10.1.2008)
Physical activity + no smoking + moderate alcohol + healthy diet = gain in 14 years of life expectancy (8/1/2008)
Black chocolate protects against heart attacks? Generally, yes. But unfortunately ... (12/31/2007)
"But Brad Pitt also smokes" - smoke-free Hollywood actors just "political correctness" or behavioral role models? (27.12.2007)
"Overfed but undernourished": Healthy nutrition is also impaired by high prices for low-calorie foods (10.12.2007)
Some may only leave with pictures - damage to the lungs of passive smokers can be seen in the picture for the first time. (27/11/2007)
Climbing stairs instead of escalators - How to encourage physical activity (15.11.2007)
The next round in the fight against smoking has already begun in the USA: Smoking bans in parks and private apartments (November 5, 2007)
Study criticizes lack of scientific basis and insufficient evaluation of prevention in Germany (23.10.2007)
Price, health-related quality and comfort of running shoes: no trace of connection. (15/10/2007)
Interventions for more physical activity in children and adolescents: Simple educational measures are of no use (10.10.2007)
"Rama half-length!" Or "Did you put rotten fish waste on your bread this morning?" - Omega 3 fatty acids (6.8.2007)
UK: An Obesity Overview of Overweight / Obesity Prevention, Identification, Assessment and Management. (7/22/2007)
About wasting time and money in anti-obesity programs known to be ineffective - The effort of effective programs (07/14/2007)
Findings from cancer research on the risks of active and passive smoking - also important after September 1st, 2007! (13.7.2007)
Interventions against Obesity in Childhood: The Fight Against the Power of Habit (07/10/2007)
Mobile to immobile - do long flight times increase the risk of thrombosis? Results of a WHO report (July 3, 2007)
"Whole grains against heart attacks !?" - Studies show a bit of evidence and leave a lot of flaws and doubts (June 29, 2007)
"Expensive, mostly superfluous - and still bought" - Fear of healthy people of cholesterol versus responsible consumers (June 28, 2007)
Health behavior of freshmen: even among medical students there are hardly any role models (May 30, 2007)
Beware of trivializing everyday drugs - "Drug and Addiction Report 2007" (May 22, 2007)
Alcohol consumption in 30 OECD countries: the more liberal the legal regulations, the more people drink (April 30, 2007)
Controlling Adolescent Alcohol Consumption: Higher Taxes or Raising the Minimum Age? (28.4.2007)
Scientists agree: alcohol and tobacco are more harmful than cannabis (23.3.2007)
Survey on breakfast habits: younger people have no time for their first meal (March 21, 2007)
Smoking cessation: Even brief exercise helps to overcome the craving for nicotine (14.3.2007)
Snuff and chewing tobacco are not "healthy" or harmless variants of smoking. (02/14/2007)
Shocking photos on cigarette packs are more likely to be perceived by smokers (9.2.2007)
Study commissioned by the BMG complains about too many "tobacco smoke incidents" in film and television (16.1.2007)
Snacking on a bit of health with red wine and coffee, walnut and olive oil (4.1.2007)
Reducing cigarette consumption has no health benefit (11/29/2006)
Those who quit smoking are less at risk of alcohol (11/24/2006)
Healthy nutrition and a healthy lifestyle are two different things (01/20/2006)
Diet high in fiber is no guarantee against colon cancer (19.1.2006)
New special issue on health reporting: "Physical activity" (28.8.2005)
Economic Consequences of Smoking in the USA (July 26, 2005)

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Unequal physical performance in old age due to various disadvantages in previous life

Unequal physical performance in older people of various racial, ethnic or regional origins largely depends on health and socio-economic disadvantages at a very young age and in later adult life. This is the conclusion reached by an examination of the data of 14,564 people who have participated in the "Health and Retirement Study (HRS)", which is representative for the USA, since 1947.

Its participants include whites, blacks, and "Hispanics" born in the United States as well as in other countries. For most of the participants, physical performance was determined by measuring the speed at which people exhale, as well as the firmness of the handshake and the speed at which they walk. In addition to subjective well-being, physical performance is one of the most important influencing factors on the self-perceived state of health of older people. After all, a poor physical condition plays a significant role in the development of disabilities and their further development. A number of socio-economic characteristics (e.g. education, income, previous employment) and indicators of health behavior (e.g. smoking behavior, weight) were also recorded for each person. Particular attention was paid to the survey of the socio-economic and health situation from childhood to adulthood.

The complex statistical analysis of the data provided significant evidence for three socially relevant issues:

• In the USA, there are large inequalities in physical performance among people who are racially, ethnically and country of birth at an advanced age. The results are not only paradoxical at first glance: For example, the "Hispanics", who predominantly work in physically demanding jobs, have a weaker handshake than their white compatriots, who do office jobs far more often.
• The health situation and material disadvantages in childhood and the resulting health in adulthood as well as the further socio-economic situation turn out to be significant predictors of inequalities in physical performance and play an important role in the development of these inequalities. However, the study also provides indications that health and socio-economic disadvantages in childhood can be weakened by objective and subjective conditions in adulthood and thus their negative effects.
• Even if the unequal physical performance of older people with different skin colors and different countries of origin is only partly due to age and instead is determined by previous life, these are not constant relationships. Instead, the authors of the study recommend a variety of interventions based on the evidence for positive effects both in childhood and in adulthood, aimed at reducing social disadvantages and reversing a "downward spiral".

From the study "Race / ethnic and nativity disparities in later life physical performance: the role of health and socioeconomic status over the life course." von Haas, S.A., Krueger, P.M. and Rohlfsen, L. published in "The Journals of Gerontology" (2012; Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67 (2): 238-248), only the abstract is available free of charge.

Bernard Braun, June 11, 2012