The energy of quarks is quantized

 

The strong interaction

In our group, we particularly explore one of the four basic forces, the strong interaction. This strongest force in nature is responsible for the binding of quarks into the observed hadrons. Hadrons are precisely those non-elementary particles that are subject to the strong interaction. They consist of quarks that are held together by the gluons. The strong force is through the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) described. This is a gauge theory, similar to electrodynamics; In contrast to electrodynamics, where there is only one kind of charge (which can appear with a positive or negative sign), there are three kinds of charges in QCD, which are called colors, e.g. red, green and blue.

The gauge theories are always based on a certain symmetry operation, the application of which leaves the physical results unchanged. So there is a certain amount of redundancy. The QCD is based on the gauge symmetry with the Lie group SU (3) as a symmetry group, in contrast to electrodynamics, on which the group U (1) is based. While in electrodynamics the force particles or gauge bosons, the Photons, themselves do not carry any charge and therefore do not exert any forces on one another (two rays of light penetrate one another without interaction), the exchange particles of the QCD carry the Gluons, even a color charge so that they interact with each other. This gives the Strong Force a number of unusual properties: