Can bread dough rise without gluten
Gluten intolerance : Walking instead of bloating
A new abbreviation is making the rounds. "Fodmap" refers to various fermentable sugars. It is F.ermentable Oligosaccharides, D.isaccharides, M.onosaccharide and (and) P.olyols. These include milk sugar (lactose), fruit sugar (fructose) and the sorbitol contained in "sugar-free" chewing gum. All of these short-chain carbohydrates and sugar alcohols can cause abdominal pain and gas, even in small amounts in sensitive people. If they cannot be sufficiently processed in the small intestine, they end up undigested in the large intestine, where the bacteria of the intestinal flora take care of them, and quickly cause problems there.
People who suffer from irritable bowel syndrome suffer particularly badly from abdominal pain, gas, diarrhea, but also constipation or a change from both. For around ten years, following a suggestion by Australian researchers, they have been recommended a diet that is low in fodmaps. You don't have to be more papal than the Pope, you don't have to do without the sugars in question entirely. Everyone can try out what and how much they can handle.
It is completely different for people with celiac disease, who have to remove the adhesive protein gluten and thus cereals such as wheat and rye from their diet in order to protect their small intestine from pathological changes.
There are certainly overlaps between the gluten-free and the low-Fodmap diet. Because rye and wheat, which contain gluten, are also rich in fodmaps. If that is complicated enough, it is further complicated by the fact that many irritable bowel syndrome patients find that wheat bread is not the same as wheat bread, one I can tolerate, the other.
Now a working group led by food scientist Reinhold Carle from the University of Hohenheim has found a cause for these differences. As the researchers report in the “Journal of Functional Foods”, it could lie in the baking process.
In a complex process, the scientists first analyzed the ancient grains of spelled, einkorn, emmer and durum - which many people with irritable bowel syndrome are quite good at - and commercial whole-grain wheat used for baking bread for their fodmaps content. To their surprise, they found that the old grains contain hardly less of this sugar than wheat. Einkorn even contains more of it.
So isn't it because of the fodmaps when bread causes stomach aches and flatulence in particularly sensitive people? Do people suffering from irritable bowel syndrome just imagine that the old, "natural" spelled from the health food store is better for them than the modern wheat, which is currently demonized as unhealthy fattening ("wheatwampe") anyway?
In search of more tangible explanations, following their analysis of the grain, the food analysts took a closer look at the processing steps during baking. They were interested in the fodmap content that the different types of dough had after one, two, four and four and a half hours of walking. It was highest for all types of grain after an hour. After four and a half hours, however, even the wheat dough contained only a tenth of the fermentable sugar compared to the initial value.
“The fodmaps are broken down by yeasts as the dough matures,” explains Carle. While the unbaked dough is rising, it not only increases in volume, a large part of the work is already being done during this time that the bacteria in the human colon would otherwise have to do later, sometimes to the chagrin of the bread consumer with the sensitive bowels.
The long phase before the baking process also explains the generally better digestibility of sourdough bread. "It has long been suspected that a long standing time is beneficial," says gastrointestinal specialist Martin Storr from the Center for Endoscopy in Starnberg. The fact that something baked with "ancient grain" is not generally better tolerated is not really new either. But the nutrition specialist immediately adds: “The study by the University of Hohenheim was nevertheless highly welcome. At last it has been scientifically proven what role the processes play in processing. "This is important for his work as a doctor:" If you advise people on their daily diet, it has to be absolutely solid. "
Storr would like food technologists to look at changes that come after baking - to back up the advice that if you suffer from irritable bowel syndrome, you shouldn't eat bread when it's still warm.
If more and more people complain about the typical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, it certainly has to do with greater health sensitivity. Another reason is probably acute gastrointestinal infections, which many people catch on long-haul trips. Because it is on their soil that the chronic disorder develops particularly frequently. A research group led by the psychosomatic specialist Bernd Löwe from the University Hospital Hamburg followed the fate of 2000 long-distance travelers.
The results, which were recently published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology, suggest that psychological factors such as anxiety and stress increase the risk of developing irritable bowel syndrome from such an infection. In addition, foods today contain a particularly large number of fodmaps. "Many products contain large amounts of fructose, which is particularly easy to process industrially. Most finished products with grains, especially baked goods, are prepared too quickly," criticizes Storr.
Extreme advice such as avoiding rye and wheat bread for a lifetime cannot be derived from this. Storr advises patients who have found out that they are reacting with symptoms to bake their own bread and let the dough rise for four hours beforehand.
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