Is a magnet a conductor
A magnetic field is created around every current-carrying conductor. This effect is called electromagnetism. Moving charges (electricity) are the cause of electromagnetism.
The field lines of the magnetic field lie like circles around the conductor. The direction of the field lines is determined by the direction of the current (screw rule). If the direction of the current is changed, the magnetic field realigns itself.
Current-carrying conductors in a magnetic field
Conductors through which current flows are deflected in the magnetic field. The superposition of the magnetic fields of the magnet and the electrical conductor leads to a strengthening of the magnetic field on one side of the conductor (right). On the other side (left) there is a weakening of the magnetic field. The conductor is deflected to the side of the weaker magnetic field (left).
Conductors through which current flows are deflected in the direction of the lower field line density.
Using the 3-finger rule with the right hand, the deflection direction of the current-carrying conductor in the magnetic field can be determined (right-hand rule or corkscrew rule).
The thumb must point in the direction of the current. The index finger shows the direction of the magnetic field. The middle finger points in the direction of deflection at 90 ° from the hand.
The magnetic deflection of moving charges (electron movement) is used in tube screens and oscilloscopes. Further applications are magnetic lenses in electron microscopes and the Hall effect.
Particle acceleration in nuclear reactors also works on the same principle.
Magnetic effect on parallel lines
If two conductors with the same current direction lie next to each other, they attract each other. The field line picture shows that the magnetic field between the conductors is weakened and strengthened outside the conductors.
If two conductors with different current directions are next to each other, they repel each other. The field line picture shows that the magnetic field is strengthened between the conductors and weakened outside the conductors.
|Same direction of current||Unequal current direction|
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