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Results of the UN climate conferences
COP 25 / CMP 15 / CMA 4, December 2nd to 15th, 2019
The world climate conference in Madrid ended two days late on December 15, 2019. Unfortunately, the results did not do justice to the urgently needed advances in climate protection. This is what Federal Environment Minister Svenja Schulze said after the conclusion of tough negotiations. By the time of COP 26 in Glasgow, all contracting states should submit revised climate protection commitments for the next decade and a long-term strategy up to 2050. Europe will lead by example and has announced a plan for 2020 to significantly increase the EU's climate target.
COP 24 / CMP 14 / CMA 3, November 6th to 17th, 2017
The climate conference in Katowice has made great progress in two areas: First, the international community has adopted a set of rules that enables the Paris Agreement to be implemented. Second, it gave the political signal that the states will not stop with their previous climate protection commitments: on the basis of the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, they want to further improve their national climate protection measures in the future. In addition, at the 24th World Climate Conference, the international community agreed on a rule book of over 100 pages. This rule book consists of numerous individual regulations. All the rules together are intended to ensure that the Paris climate targets are adhered to by all states and implemented without loopholes. For the first time, it sets binding transparency standards for all states.
COP 23 / CMP 13 / CMA 1-2, November 6th to 17th, 2017
The 2017 World Climate Conference took place in Germany under the presidency of the Fiji Islands. Great progress was made at COP 23 in Bonn, both in negotiating and acting. The conference thus fully met expectations. Bonn sends out a strong signal that the world stands together and that climate protection cannot be stopped. A key result of the conference is the so-called Talanoa dialogue. Talanoa is a Fijian term for an exchange with everyone involved. Over the next year, under the leadership of Fiji and Poland, it will bring together contributions from science, business and civil society. The result will be an inventory that is intended to motivate the contracting states to act more ambitiously in order to close the global climate protection gap. There were also important advances in the so-called rule book, the implementing provisions for the Paris Agreement. For example, it is about the question of how countries measure their greenhouse gas emissions and report on them. In Bonn, texts were developed on all issues that can be finalized by the World Climate Conference in Katowice in 2018.
COP 22 / CMP 12, November 7th to 18th, 2016
The discussions and events at COP 22 focused on the dialogue on specific measures and projects to put the Paris Agreement into practice. Germany was the first country to present an ambitious long-term strategy with the "Climate Protection Plan 2050". In addition, the USA, Mexico and Canada presented their climate protection plans to decarbonise their economies. The new implementation partnership initiated by Germany and Morocco - the so-called "NDC partnership" - which will support the countries of the South in realizing their national climate goals, met with a positive response. The industrialized countries are reaffirming their goal of providing $ 100 billion annually in climate finance from 2020 onwards. To this end, further steps were decided. Germany strengthened the so-called adjustment fund with 50 million euros and made an additional 25 million euros available for further adjustment measures.
COP 21 / CMP 11, November 30th to December 11th, 2015
On December 12, 2015, history was made in Paris: the Paris Agreement was passed at the international climate conference, also known as "COP 21". After many years of intensive negotiations, all states have committed themselves to changing the world economy in a climate-friendly way. This is a historic step - according to the previous regulation in the so-called Kyoto Protocol, only a few industrialized countries were obliged to reduce emissions.
COP 20 / CMP 10, December 1-12, 2014
With its resolution, the UN climate summit in Lima (Peru) laid the basis for negotiations on the new global climate treaty in Paris in 2015. The final document contains the first basic features of a new climate protection agreement that includes all states for the first time. These should each submit their own climate protection contributions. Until the end, it was controversial as to how the states would participate in climate protection in the future and what legal form the new agreement should have. The rigid division between industrialized and developing countries is no longer appropriate. The climate summit also brought success in questions of climate finance. The states have paid over 10 billion US dollars into the Green Climate Fund and thus created the fund's financial basis. In addition, during the conference in Lima, Germany pledged an additional contribution of 50 million euros to another UN fund.
COP 19 / CMP 9, November 11-22, 2013
The UN climate conference in Warsaw ended with a series of important decisions. Despite difficult negotiations, the participants were able to agree on a timetable for a new climate agreement and on key points for financing climate protection measures. A central requirement of the developing countries affected was met with the establishment of a mechanism to deal with losses and damage. A breakthrough was also achieved in forest protection. With these resolutions, the international community has taken some steps towards a global climate agreement that is to be adopted at the UN climate conference in Paris in 2015.
Representatives of almost 200 countries negotiated this from 11 to 22 November 2013 at the 19th Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the ninth Conference of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP 19 / CMP 9) in Poland. After the Poznań conference in 2008, Poland hosted a climate conference for the second time.
COP 18 / CMP 8, November 26th to December 7th, 2012
At the UN climate summit In the desert emirate of Doha, after difficult negotiations, the states passed a package of decisions as an extension.
The Kyoto protocol to be continued. The EU and its 27 member states, Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Croatia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Australia are entering into a second, legally binding, eight-year commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol. The controversial point of whether those countries may also participate in certificate trading that, such as Russia or Japan, do not participate in a second period has been clearly decided: only countries that have a target for the second commitment period in Annex B can opt out participate in certificate trading. Because of its unwillingness to limit its certificates in the second period, Russia blocked the final plenary for a long time. An agreement was only reached at the last minute.
The new climate agreement will be negotiated according to a clear timetable from next year. Negotiations are to be concluded by the climate summit in France at the end of 2015. For 2013 it was decided that the negotiations would concentrate heavily on the question of the distribution of responsibilities and duties between industrialized, emerging and developing countries.
The Doha decisions provide impetus for more immediate Climate protection activitiesthat are necessary in order to still be able to comply with the two-degree upper limit. On the sidelines of the conference, many countries made clear the potential for more and more ambitious climate protection with the help of specific initiatives, for example to reduce fluorocarbons, to reduce soot particles or to increase the share of renewable energies. In the negotiations, a process was set up to clarify the reduction activities in industrialized, emerging and developing countries. In order to keep up the pressure for more ambitious climate protection, developing countries called for an international mechanism to deal with damage caused by climate change.
As part of the Financial decisions of the "Doha Climate Gateway", the fast-start financing provided by the industrialized countries between 2010 and 2012 was recognized. For the subsequent period up to 2015, the industrialized countries should intensify their efforts to provide funds at least as much as the average of the fast-start financing period. The Green Climate Fund (GCF) should implement its work program quickly and thus enable a replenishment process that is as quick and appropriate as possible. The UN work program on long-term financing is being extended by one year. It should provide information by the next COP with the aim of supporting the industrialized countries in their efforts to identify growth paths to mobilize the 100 billion US dollars per year from public and private funds by 2020.
Germany and the EU have a working process with partners to set up a new one Market mechanism set up for more climate protection. No agreement could be found regarding the inclusion of international air and shipping traffic.
COP 17 / CMP 7, November 28 to December 11, 2011
At the end of the UN climate summit in Durban, the international community agreed to negotiate in 2012 on something that would include all states legally binding climate protection agreement to start. On this basis, the conference was able to agree on a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol, which expires at the end of 2012. The Durban package is a qualitative step Forward. With a strong alliance Between the EU, the least developed states and the small island states, it has been possible to put together a package of decisions that will oblige all, and above all, the large emitters in the long term.
- From the beginning of 2012 a new UN working group will begin to negotiate the new comprehensive climate agreement, which should be adopted in 2015 at the latest.
- The Kyoto protocol will be continued with a second period from the beginning of 2013. By the next UN climate conference in Qatar, the emission budgets to which the states are entitled and how to deal with excess emission rights from the first period are to be regulated.
- The ambition in terms of greenhouse gas reduction increased because the reduction offers on the table from industrialized, emerging and developing countries are not sufficient to achieve the Two degree upper limit or even that 1.5 degree upper limit to be observed. An action program is to be drawn up for implementation. Important information on this is provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the review process decided on at the last climate summit in Cancún.
- The conference decided to continue to set targets for increased transparency the mitigation activities of industrialized, emerging and developing countries. Reports and their review help to better understand climate protection activities and ultimately to assess whether these activities are sufficient to prevent dangerous climate change.
- Decision to fully implement the Package, with which emerging and developing countries are to be supported in mitigation and adaptation measures. First to name is the Green climate fundwho will be able to work in 2012. It is intended to provide financial support to emerging and developing countries with climate protection measures. Where the money for the fund is to be mobilized from will be discussed next year. Germany will support initial activities in developing countries with 40 million euros and is applying for the seat of the fund secretariat.
- The fund becomes part of the international Overall climate protection financing be. Developed countries stand by their pledge to mobilize funding from public and private sources, which should reach US $ 100 billion annually by 2020.
- The support package for emerging and developing countries also includes a committee made up of developing countries Adaptation measures to support climate change as well as a network and a technical committee for the better dissemination of climate-friendly technologies. Both will start work as soon as possible.
COP 16 / CMP 6, November 29th to December 10th, 2010
At the 16th World Climate Conference that was Package from Cancun (Cancun Agreement, CA) adopted. For the first time, this officially recognizes the two-degree upper limit in a UN decision and contains a reference to the currently available reduction offers from industrialized and developing countries.
Other contents included the establishment of a global climate fund, agreements on adaptation to the consequences of climate change, forest protection (REDD +), technology cooperation and capacity building in developing countries. A procedure was agreed to check whether the measures taken are sufficient to meet the two-degree target. In addition, basic agreements on the transparency of climate protection measures (MRV) were made by states. Under certain conditions, industrialized countries have pledged to mobilize funds from public and private sources for climate protection measures in developing countries, which should reach US $ 100 billion annually by 2020. In this way, the Copenhagen agreements are transformed into formal resolutions, further developed and operationalized.
One year after the difficult climate summit in Copenhagen, the world community has shown that it is capable of acting. The Cancún Agreement formalized the political agreement reached in Copenhagen and created a good basis for the gradual further development of the international climate protection regime and for supporting developing countries with climate protection.
COP 15 / CMP 5, December 7-18, 2009
The aim of the UN climate summit in Copenhagen was to make a binding decision on the core elements for a new climate agreement. This has not yet been achieved. In Copenhagen it was only possible during the last two days of negotiations by a group of representatively selected heads of state and government Copenhagen Agreement (Copenhagen Accord, CA) to work out. This agreement is a political declaration that 140 countries have now committed to. It defines some of the core building blocks of future international climate policy. The plenary session of the climate conference, i.e. the assembly of all 194 member states of the climate convention, took note of this text and introduced it as a basis for the negotiation process. Measured against the goals that Germany and the EU pursued with the Copenhagen Conference, the result is sobering. However, it represents a first step that should now be built upon. The positive thing about the CA is that for the first time a large group of industrialized and developing countries has agreed on the two-degree limit. In principle, all other specific goals can be derived from this goal. The transparency requirements for measures by developing countries and the statements on financial support are also positive. However, essential points are not included in the Copenhagen Accord. In Copenhagen it was decided that the work of the two parallel working groups on future climate policy under the Framework Convention on Climate Change and under the Kyoto Protocol on the basis of the texts negotiated at working level in Copenhagen should continue at least until the next Conference of the Parties in Mexico in order to be able to discuss the results there decide.
Contents of the Copenhagen Agreement
- Mitigation: In the Copenhagen Agreement, all supporting states commit themselves to the goal of limiting the global temperature rise to below two degrees Celsius. This goal and the progress made in implementing the mitigation measures are to be reviewed in 2015. The industrialized countries commit themselves to economy-wide reduction targets by the year 2020. Developing countries commit to voluntary self-financed climate protection measures and undertake to give an international account of measures supported by industrialized countries and to list them in a register. Self-financed mitigation measures should be subjected to national verification on the basis of international criteria ("MRV"). They are to be informed about them every two years as part of national reports. The goals and measures of industrialized and developing countries were entered in the appendices of the agreement in January. All industrialized countries, all major emerging economies and a large number of developing countries have now made their contributions more concrete.
- Financing: The industrialized countries are committed to providing up to 30 billion US dollars for climate protection in developing countries between 2010 and 2012. With the equivalent of US $ 10.6 billion, the EU agreed to raise the highest amount for immediate financing. The industrialized countries agree to mobilize 100 billion US dollars annually for climate protection measures there by 2020 if there are sufficient and transparent reduction offers from the developing countries. A new "High Level Panel" will review the progress made towards achieving this goal. In addition, a "Copenhagen Green Fund" is to be set up, through which a considerable portion of the money will flow.
- New facilities: In addition, a "technology mechanism" and a "REDD + mechanism" are to be set up. These are intended to support developing countries in technology programs and in reducing their emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. The Copenhagen Agreement leaves the exact functions of these institutions open.
COP 14 / CMP 4, December 1-12, 2008
The 14th Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the fourth Conference of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in 2008 in Poznań, Poland, marked an important intermediate step in the international negotiation process for a new climate protection agreement post-2012: the transition from exchanging the respective positions to concrete negotiations on the textual content of a new one Agreement. In this respect, Poznań formed a working conference at which the essential elements of the future climate protection regime were discussed and the states were able to present their negotiating positions again.
The subject matter of the content-related discussions was above all the necessary goals of the states to reduce greenhouse gases as well as the financial support of climate protection measures in developing countries. Naturally, no decisions have been made at this point in time. However, the states agreed to state their national reduction targets and mitigation measures for 2020 by mid-February 2009.
At the same time, it became clear in the discussions that a successful conclusion of the climate negotiations crucially depends on a significant expansion of financial support for climate protection measures in developing countries. As an important result of Poznań, the adaptation fund of the Kyoto Protocol decided in Bali was made operational. In the future, the developing countries should have direct access to its funds, taking into account the requirements of the Conference of the Parties for financial control.
COP 13 / CMP 3, December 3-14, 2007
The 13th Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 13) and the third Conference of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 3) in 2007 ended with the agreement of the "Bali Action Plan".The signatory states to the Framework Convention on Climate Change decided with him to negotiate concrete commitments and contributions by all states to the reduction of emissions (including the reduction of deforestation), adaptation, technology and financing up to and after 2012. Originally, these negotiations were supposed to end in 2009 at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP 15) in Copenhagen. In Durban it was decided that the group should stop working in Doha.
As part of the negotiations on future commitments for industrialized countries under the Kyoto Protocol, an indicative reduction corridor could be established for industrialized countries: An emission reduction of 25 to 40 percent by 2020 compared to 1990 is being considered. This defines the level of ambition for the negotiations. In the Bali Action Plan (which is aimed at all contracting states of the convention - including the USA) it was stipulated that the requirements for all industrialized countries should be comparable.
All industrialized and developing countries agreed to fight climate change together and much more intensely than before. For the first time, the developing countries have also declared themselves ready to take their own measurable, reportable and verifiable climate protection measures in the future, which are to be supported by technology cooperation, financing and capacity building.
In response to pressure from the EU, the decision contains clear wording that underlines the urgency to act. The contracting states also make clear reference to the IPCC's fourth assessment report and indirectly refer to the degree of action required in the future: a reduction in emissions by 2050 well below the level of 2000 in order to prevent the dangerous effects of climate change.
COP 12 / CMP 2, December 6th to 17th, 2006
The 12th Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the second Conference of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in Nairobi in 2006 focused on "African" issues. The principles and structure of the adjustment fund and a five-year work program for adjustment were agreed. In addition, Africa is to be supported by building capacities and helping to develop specific projects so that the continent can participate more in the CDM. Germany and the EU announced that they would massively increase the European Union's fund of funds for energy efficiency and renewable energies (GEEREF). These funds are intended to initiate climate-friendly investments of around 1.25 billion euros and thus make a concrete contribution to overcoming energy poverty, especially in Africa.
The ad hoc working group for establishing new obligations for industrialized countries under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG) has agreed on a work program. Accordingly, based on the joint determination that global emissions must be halved by 2050, it will be examined in the coming years what contributions the flexible mechanisms, for example, can make. In addition, it was possible to agree on a review of the Kyoto Protocol by 2008. However, it was not possible to decide at the conference what conclusions should be drawn from the review for the future. Overall, the climate conference in Nairobi sent a clear political signal that the Kyoto Protocol should continue to form the backbone of international climate protection after 2012.
During the conference, Sir N. Stern, the former chief economist of the World Bank and current advisor to the British government, presented the so-called Stern report. The main message of this report is that climate protection is not only ecologically necessary, but also economically necessary, because the costs of non-trading far exceed those of acting.
In a speech, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan put climate protection on the same level as the human challenges of combating poverty and arms control. Climate change is affecting the development of states and is becoming increasingly relevant in terms of security policy. He stressed that all states are obliged to act and announced the Nairobi Framework, a joint initiative of UNEP, UNDP, World Bank, UNFCCC and the African Development Bank. It is intended to enable the least developed countries (LDCs) to participate more in CDM projects.
COP 11 / CMP 1, November 28th to December 9th, 2005
The result of the 11th Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the first Conference of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (after the Kyoto Protocol came into force on February 16, 2005) in Montreal, Canada, was the so-called Montreal Action Plan, a roadmap for the further development of the international climate protection regime post-2012.
With 189 states, almost all countries in the world are members of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. Of these, 156 states, including Germany and all other countries of the European Union, have also ratified the Kyoto Protocol. States like the USA and Australia, which have only accepted the Framework Convention on Climate Change but reject the Kyoto Protocol, were able to take part in the negotiations in Montréal as observers.
The roadmap adopted for the further development of the international climate protection regime post-2012 comprised two parallel strands - under the Framework Convention on Climate Change and under the Kyoto Protocol: In May 2006, the signatory states discussed future reduction commitments for industrialized countries for the first time as part of a new working group. By September 2006, all contracting parties were able to submit proposals for the general review of the Kyoto Protocol. A two-year dialogue phase with four workshops began in the spring of 2006 as part of the Framework Convention on Climate Change.
In addition, with the adoption of the Marrakesh Accords, the Kyoto Protocol was fully developed and given a strong review regime. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was additionally funded with 7.7 million US dollars, organizationally improved and institutionally strengthened. The five-year work program on the effects of climate change and adaptation was adopted.
COP 10, December 6-17, 2004
At the 10th Conference of the States Parties, the focus was on a topic that is particularly dear to developing countries: measures to adapt to the climate change that is already taking place.
Developing countries, and especially the poorest of the poor, are hardest hit by the consequences of global climate change and, at the same time, do not have sufficient resources to deal with them. That is why they urge greater consideration in international consultations on climate protection. Increasingly recurring floods, droughts and storms - as in 2004 in the Caribbean and the USA - make it clear that adaptation measures are urgent and inevitable not only in developing countries but also in industrialized countries. Climate change is advancing. Even in the near future, a certain amount of adaptation measures will no longer be preventable, even if global warming does not exceed the upper limit of two degrees set by the EU compared to pre-industrial values.
That is why the COP 10 also discussed the financial needs that exist for the implementation of the Framework Convention on Climate Change in developing countries. The discussions on strengthening institutional and personnel capacities, technology transfer and the national reports of developing countries will continue.
There were further informal discussions at COP 10 about the further development of climate policy. The occasion for such discussions was the tenth anniversary of the entry into force of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was celebrated at COP 10.
COP 9, December 1-12, 2003
The ninth climate conference in Milan was initially under the impression of contradicting statements from Russia regarding the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the uncertainty at the time of the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the aggressive presentation of the US approach to climate policy (voluntary agreements, technology funding) in the media and in side events. Nevertheless, it was possible to show the overwhelming majority of the international community's support for the Kyoto Protocol. A very important and not to be underestimated success is the conclusion of the two-year negotiations on the rules for afforestation and reforestation projects in developing countries at this Conference of the Parties. This closed the last loophole in the implementation rules of the Kyoto Protocol.
COP 8, October 23 to November 1, 2002
The eighth Conference of the Parties in New Delhi in 2002 performed a bridging function. Negotiations on the detailed issues of the Kyoto Protocol were as good as complete and it was expected that it would enter into force the following year. Nevertheless, especially at the request of the developing countries, negotiations on a second commitment period should not begin before the Kyoto Protocol has come into force.
For this reason, the first talks were held with key countries such as Brazil, India and China on the possibility of fair acceptance of obligations for developing countries, but only on an informal level.
In addition to this political discussion, there were substantive decisions about the design of the Clean Development Mechanism and the use of the funds that industrialized countries in developing countries will provide for climate protection measures. In addition, new guidelines for the national reports to be drawn up by developing countries were discussed. A work program was also decided in New Delhi to anchor the issue of climate protection more firmly in the public and in the educational landscape of the signatory states.
At the climate conference in New Delhi, Germany reaffirmed its pioneering role in international climate protection by announcing internationally that Germany would be ready to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 40 percent by 2020 if the EU undertakes to reduce its emissions by 30 percent and other industrialized countries formulate similarly ambitious goals.
COP 7, October 29 to November 10, 2001
The central result of the seventh Conference of the Parties was the "Marrakesh Agreement" ("The Marrakesh Accords"), a package of 15 decisions on the design and implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, including on the compliance control system, on the use of the so-called Kyoto mechanisms Crediting of sinks and the promotion of climate protection in developing countries. With the Marrakesh Agreement, the conference paved the way for the Kyoto Protocol to come into force.
On May 31, 2002, Germany and the other EU member states ratified the Kyoto Protocol. Other industrialized countries such as Japan, Norway and the Eastern European countries have also ratified the Kyoto Protocol. However, the goal of getting the Kyoto Protocol into force in time for the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg at the end of August 2002 could not be achieved. Ratification by other industrialized countries was still missing for this.
COP 6-2, July 16-27, 2001
The continuation of the sixth Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was adjourned in The Hague in November 2000, took place in Bonn in the summer of 2001. This was where an agreement was finally reached on the key open questions of the Kyoto Protocol.
The "Bonn Resolution" on international climate policy was a historic result: despite the United States' withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol in March 2001, the contracting states managed to reach an agreement and thus meet the requirements for ratification and implementation of the Kyoto Protocol create. At the same time, the Bonn Climate Conference deserves the credit for reviving the international climate negotiation process, which has recently been heavily criticized. A failure of the climate negotiations in Bonn could have meant the end of the Kyoto Protocol, after the November 2000 conference in The Hague had failed to produce any results.
The President of the Sixth Conference of the Parties, the Dutch Environment Minister Jan Pronk, had submitted a proposal to the ministers late in the evening of July 21st, which would be included in the four disputed questions (CO2
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