What are some legendary swords besides Excalibur

Portal for the student. Self preparation

King Arthur's sword. Excalibur.

King Arthur obtained this sword with the help of the wizard Merlin - it was held over the water by a mysterious hand (the hand of the Lady of the Lake) after losing his sword in a duel with Sir Pelinor.
According to legend, Excalibur was forged by the blacksmith god Velund. According to another, it was forged on Avalon.
In some early texts it belonged to Gawaine before it fell into Arthur's hands.

The Excalibur sword, along with the Holy Grail itself, is a symbol of the legends of King Arthur. Until recently this marvelous weapon was believed to have been invented by medieval writers of the round table novels, but recently it has been proven that the mention of the magical sword of the great king also appeared in the earliest legends about Arthur, so the sword was called Caliburn and "ex" - just a reinforcing particle that is added much later.
Two explanations have been found for the sword's original name. First, it could come from the name of another legendary Caledfolch sword that is persistent in many ancient Celtic legends. In this case it means "lightning, lightning". The lightning sword of the pagan god of thunder had a similar name.
The second version says that the word "Caliburn" comes from the Latin word "Chalys", which means "steel".
But one way or another, Excalibur, the great sword of King Arthur, a symbol of courage and honor, is a sword that cannot be broken even in the most terrible battle.
In some sources, Excalibur is called the sword in the stone, the very same thing that Merlin prophesied was to be delivered under the stone slab by the future King of England. However, this version is considered to be buggy. The sword that Arthur used to prove his right to the throne was broken in one of the first battles of the Knights of the Round Table and had no magical properties.
Excalibur was forged by the hands of the Immortals in the forges of beautiful Avallon and given to Arthur by the mistress of the lake, who ordered the sword to be returned to where it came from in time. Arthur couldn't stop looking at the shining blade with a jeweled hilt and ignored Merlin's warnings that the sword was not as important as its unsightly scabbard, for the wearer was invulnerable in battle.
The scabbard was soon lost, but the sword served its master faithfully until the end of his life. And it was his blade that mortally wounded Mordred, Arthur's last opponent. The king was weak from wounds and felt close to death. He summoned the only surviving knight. And when he gave him Excalibur, he ordered him to be thrown into the enchanted lake. But when the knight saw how beautiful this sword is, he decided to keep it to himself, hid it and returned to his dying master. Sensing something was wrong, he asked what had happened when the precious sword touched the smooth surface of the water. The knight found no answer, confessed to the deception and returned to the lake, ashamed, for a long time he could not part with the beautiful blade, and when he finally threw it he saw a woman's hand who caught the sword itself over the water and immediately disappeared . The knight told Arthur about it and he fearlessly left the world, doing his last duty and bringing the magical sword back to the lake as promised.
The strange fate of the sword that emerged from the lake and returned to the same place is most likely due to the ancient Celtic custom of sinking weapons. An exact explanation for this custom has not yet been found, but weapons can still be found in European waters. In addition, it has been proven that it did not get there by accident, not broken, not even damaged, it only has traces of ritual, staged battles. The lakes where they found particularly ornate blades are still surrounded by legends and beliefs. Scientists suggest that they were considered sacred in the first centuries of our time. It was also believed that the priestess in charge of the lake could bring a sword from its depths and give it to the most worthy one on only one condition: after serving her master, the blade must return to the sacred reservoir.

Answers to further questions about "Golden Fleece" can be found here

Excalibur sword is one of the most mysterious myths associated with King Arthur. Today we are going to talk about King Arthur and his magnificent sword Excalibur.

The greatest Western European legend, the Historia Regum Britanniae, which was written in Latin by Geoffroy de Monmouth around 1135 and translated twenty years later into the old French Norman Robert Weiss, mentions the magical sword of King Arthur called Caliburn for the first time.

The author tells of the historic Battle of Badon, in which King Arthur successfully fought back the Saxon invasion, and tells how Arthur, shadowing himself with a precious sword made on the sacred island of the Celts, Avalon, entered the middle of the Battle rushed and defeated enemies with the first blow. According to legend, the king killed four hundred and seventy soldiers with his only weapon - the Caliburn sword. This sword is believed to have magical properties to cut the blades of other swords while remaining intact and preserving its owner, who must have a pure heart.

Excalibur sword.

The origin of the sword has two versions that somewhat contradict each other.

According to the first version, it was made by the wizard Merlin, who, by the power of magic, locked it in a large stone and wrote on it that whoever can pull the sword out of the stone will be the King of all Great Britain from birth.

How did Arthur get this sword?

His father, Uther Pendragon, whose last name means "Conqueror of the Dragon", was a righteous and wise king. The king tried to get along with the gods and express their will on earth, keeping with him the advisor Merlin, a wise man known for his ability to communicate with the spirits of nature. Nobody knew where this Merlin under the king came from. They said that he was born on the mysterious island of Avalon, where he once came from, but no one knew where that island was.

Merlin appeared unexpectedly in difficult times for the kingdom and also suddenly disappeared when everything fell apart. The night King Uther's son Arthur was born, he suddenly came in a flash and asked him to give him the boy. The king no doubt granted Merlin's wish, especially since the wise man said it would be better for the kingdom. Nobody in the whole kingdom knew that the king had an heir. He disappeared with Merlin.

Different legends speak differently about the later fate of young Arthur. Part of the legends claim that Arthur was raised by the knight Ector under the constant supervision of Merlin, and the second part says that Arthur lived with the sage Merlin himself on the island of Avalon for seventeen years.

King Uther never saw his heir again and, before his death, decided to entrust the fate of Great Britain to Merlin, the only person he trusted. Because of his foresight, Merlin gives the will of the gods to decide the fate of the future kingdom because he believed that fair government should be restored in the kingdom of Great Britain and no one can decide who is fair and who is not.

Merlin points to a stone with a sword hidden in it and waits for a sign from above to show who will get that sword. Many knights tried their strength to get out of the stone. But Merlin understood very well that it was not about physical strength, but spiritual strength, the ability to live not for yourself but for others.

All kinds of knights tried to secure the king's place. Arthur was among them too, but not as a knight, but as a side for his named brother Kay, who lost his sword through negligence and asked Arthur to get him a new one. Without thinking, Arthur took it from the magic stone and brought it to Kay in place of the lost one.

Kei immediately understood the opportunity fate presented him, for this sword could not be ignored. Without hesitation he went with him to Merlin. But Merlin was not fooled and ordered Kay to put the sword back in the stone and show everyone how he had pulled it out of there. Kay had no choice but to tell the truth.

Thus the ignorant and unsuspecting side instantly becomes the King of Great Britain, who ruled justly and wisely, caring for the humiliated, poor and insulted and continuing the traditions of his father Uther.

The second version of the origin of the sword Excalibur tells that King Arthur once received it from a fairy of a forest lake when he passed it. He saw a hand rise from the middle of the lake in a sleeve of luxurious silk, clutching a wonderful sword, and shining like hundreds of torches in the night. The Lady of the Lake approached Arthur on the water and explained to King Arthur that this is a magical one waiting for a worthy knight. Arthur expressed a very ardent desire to master this sword and the Lady of the Lake allowed Arthur to take the sword and ordered that it be removed from its scabbard only in real combat. She also said that the sword and scabbard would always be with Arthur because the sword and scabbard are magical and can save the king from wounds.

Various legends are associated with the Excalibur sword. According to one, this sword was stolen from the king and he was killed with it. According to others, the sword was always with Arthur and he gave it back to the Lady of the Lake before he died when he suffered his first and only defeat.And allegedly, the Virgin of the Lake brought the dying king to the mythical island of Avalon, symbolizing the other world, where Arthur is still waiting for his return to Britain.

Excalibur - the legendary sword of King Arthur, which is often attributed to mystical and magical properties. Sometimes Excalibur is identified with the sword in the stone, but in most of the texts they are different swords. The sword is first mentioned in the "History of the Kings of Great Britain" by Galfrid of Monmouth.

history
This sword was obtained from King Arthur with the help of the wizard Merlin - it was held over the water by the hand of the Lady of the Lake - after losing his sword in a duel with Sir Pelinor. One day Arthur's sister, the Morgan Fairy, persuaded her lover Sir Accolon to kill the king. To make it easier for him, she stole Excalibur and his sheath, which were magical and aided in wound healing. But Arthur could defeat the enemy with conventional weapons. After the final battle of Arthur, when the king felt he was dying, he asked the last of the surviving Knights of the Round Table, Sir Bedivere, to throw the sword into the nearest body of water - to return the Lady of the Lake. It was only after he arranged for it that Arthur died peacefully. Legend has it that Excalibur was forged by the blacksmith god Velund. According to another, it was forged on Avalon. In some early texts it belonged to Gawain before it fell into Arthur's hands. Archaeological finds of a large number of swords from the Middle Ages in European waters suggest the existence of a custom of sinking weapons after the death of a warrior.

etymology
The name of King Arthur's sword comes from the Welsh Caledwulh, which combines the elements caled ("battle") and bwlch ("break integrity", "tear"). Galfrid of Monmouth Latinized the name - the sword in his work "History of the Kings of Britain" from the 12th century is called Caliburn or Caliburnus. In French medieval literature, the sword was called Excalibor, Excalibor, and Excalibur.
The first mentions of Caledwulkh refer to the Celtic legends "Trophies of Annun" and "Keeluch and Olven" - a work that is included in the Mabinogion and dates back to around 1100. In some chivalric novels, Excalibur is also referred to as Mirandoisa and Chastefol.

What does the legend hold?An old legend about the Knights of the Round Table.
Many years ago heroes lived and died in honor of the king, for their country and their beautiful ladies. Many, many years ago the formidable King Uther Pendragon lived in the land of Great Britain and was in love with the beautiful Igraine, Duchess of Cornwall. For the good fortune to reunite with her, the king promised the magician Merlin his future son. And when the child was born, Uther, keeping his word, gave the boy to a wise druid to raise on his own understanding. Little Arthur lost his parents and became the adopted son of Sir Ector. Uther died soon after, and the country was in chaos. Fearing internecine wars, Merlin gathered the English barons in London's largest church on the night before Christmas. When they came out of the doors of the temple after the service, they miraculously saw a stone in the place with a sword stuck in the middle of the blade. "Who can draw this sword out of the stone," says the inscription, "he will be the King of England." Many wanted to test their strength, but the sword did not even swing, and the English throne did not find the long-awaited ruler. Many years later, when very few people remembered the sword in stone, brave knights from all over Britain came to London to take part in the tournament. Among the guests were Sir Ector with his son Kay and the unknown Arthur, who served as a friend and squire with his foster brother. On the way it was found that Kay had left the sword at home, and Arthur was honored to return for it. But the servants went to the tournament and the house was locked. Arthur was ashamed to appear before his master empty-handed, but luckily he saw a sword sticking out of a stone in the square, pulled it out easily and, delighted at the find, went to Kay. He immediately recognized Merlin's magical sword and explained it to his father, stating that he intended to become king. But under Sir Ector's stern gaze, he immediately confessed everything. When Arthur drew the sword out of the stone again in front of the astonished knights, it became clear who the real king was. Arthur ruled like a righteous king. He did many wonderful works for the good of his subjects. The country was full of rumors about him. The noblest knights in Great Britain dreamed of heroism and turned to his court. They were strong and brave people, but there was no agreement between them. Frequent quarrels and riots darkened the life of the state. And then one day everything changed. On the wedding day Arthur and the dowry of his wife, the beautiful Lady Genever, received an unusual table - 150 knights could gather at it at the same time no, and thanks to its round shape, everyone turned out to be equal before God and the King. Thus the brotherhood of the Knights of the Round Table was born. Once a year, at Pentecost, they gathered in Camelot to confirm their right to a seat at the round table of stories of heroism. There was no shortage of noble men in Camelot, only one seat at the round table was always empty. It was called "harmful" because only the noblest and purest man of the heart could occupy a knight without harming himself or others. And one day such a knight appeared. The next day of Pentecost, when the knights renewed their pledges of loyalty to Arthur and Camelot and took their seats at the round table, a handsome young man in white robes appeared in the hall. The inscription "Galahad" immediately appeared on the back of an empty chair. As Galahad took his place, a thunder struck, the shutters knocked alarmingly, and darkness fell on Camelot. Suddenly a bowl covered with a white veil appeared on the table, and a heavenly voice announced that this bowl is the Grail and that the Brotherhood of Knights of the Round Table will live as long as they live in peace. Nobody could see them, only the hall was full of wonderful aromas, and in front of each knight there was food and drink that best suited his taste. "And the holy grail was carried through the whole room and disappeared, nobody knows how and where." The audience was stunning, and when they regained the gift of speech without leaving the venue, they swore an oath to seek the Holy Grail immediately. From now on, the knights in the past kept their life between celebrations and heroic deeds.
Troubadours and minstrels were for some reason sure that the search for the Grail is the only important thing in life, that the Grail unites that without which the life of each of us loses its meaning: the most beautiful dreams, the greatest love , the highest aspirations, to which only When a person can grow and attain, the Grail is only open to those who strive for it with all the strength of their soul. The search for the Grail posed many challenges for the Knights of Arthur. Only three of them: the invincible Perceval, the pure-hearted Bors and the perfect knight Galahad made it to the finish. The Grail was revealed to them as a reward for their spiritual quest, for purity and courage. It was opened because they saw him in dreams, day and night, in dreams and in reality. After Galahad completed his mission, he fixed his gaze to heaven and his soul rose to meet the angels. Parzival and Bors vowed to return to Camelot and tell everyone about the Holy Grail. And the two knights also saw a hand stretched out from heaven, but they did not see the body, and that hand reached the sacred vessel and lifted it up and carried it to heaven. Since then there has not been a person on earth who could say that he had seen the Holy Grail. "Not all knights returned to Camelot. And the final battle awaited those who returned. In it wounded Mordred, the eternal enemy, the embodiment of evil and vice, King Arthur mortally. It is time for the Knights of the Round Table, these." To leave the world. A silently approaching ship brought the great king to a magical island where there is no place for evil, suffering and death. The best knights followed him, and there, on unknown Avallon, they sleep soundly and share the fate of their master.

Excalibur is King Arthur's sword in Sir Thomas Malory's landmark Le Mort d'Arthur, published in 1485 AD. The sword was originally introduced by Geoffrey of Monmouth (1136 AD) as Calibernus (or Calibern) in A History of the Kings of Britain and further developed by later writers before Malory immortalized it in his work. At first glance, the sword is a powerful weapon in the hands of a skilled warrior and maintains that reputation in every story that characterizes it.

As with many other magical or powerful swords in legend or mythology, it is identified with a hero and, due to its inherent power, should not be allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy. In Excalibur's case, if Arthur dies of his wounds after fighting Mordred, he must be returned to his source, Lady Lake, instead of being entrusted to a knight - no matter how noble - Arthur the King can succeed.

However, this rule does not always apply to every version of the legend. In a poem by Conte du Grail, the Provencal poet Chrétien de Troyes (c. 1130 - 1190 AD) makes the Excalibur weapon (called Escalibor) Sir Gawain. In the Vulgate Cycle (1215-1235 AD) and in the Post-Wulgate Cycle (approx. 1230-1245 AD) Arthur introduces Gawain with Excalibur, who then gives him to Lancelot to protect Guenever. Gawain then returns the sword to Arthur for his final fight with Mordred, and then it is said to be returned to Lady Lake.

DREAMS IN MYTHOLOGY
The sword of power was not associated with the Arthurian legend. A number of magical swords are mentioned in Greek mythology, in particular the gappa with which the Titan Kronos overthrows his father Uranus. Croce Morse, the sword of Julius Caesar, was said to have supernatural powers, like the sword of Mars that belonged to Attila Hun. The Jangjiang and Moye swords of the Chinese spring and autumn periods must also be imbued with great power by their creators.

In the biblical book of Genesis, after the fall of man, God sets up his cherubim so that they stand east of the Garden of Eden, along with a flaming sword “that turned in every way” to prevent Adam and Eve from returning. The Shinto storm god Susanuo finds a magical sword in the dragon's tail, which eventually became part of the Japanese imperial regalia. Norse mythology often uses magical swords such as the gram, the weapon of Sigmund and his son Sigurd, and the Celts introduced a number of magical swords into their stories, including the Kleeve sollish, the sword of light that triumphs over darkness . In the 11th century BC The Spanish hero El Cid had two magical swords, and the 8th century French European champion Roland owned his famous Durendal blade and fell with it to defend Ronchevo's passage in the epic Song of Roland.

While there are precedents for previous magical or supernaturally powerful swords, Excalibur is arguably the most famous. It is often associated with another Arthurian motif, the sword in the stone, but they are actually two different swords. In some versions of the legend, the sword in the stone is destroyed in Arthur's first battle and replaced by Excalibur, while in others the sword in the stone justifies Arthur's right to rule as the son and successor of Uther Pendragon (since only he can pull the blade out of the rock may) Excalibur serves as a symbol of his power as a king.

KNOWN NAME AND ORIGIN
The name Excalibur could come from the work of Culhwch and Olwen von Mabinogion, a collection of Welsh legends, if the date of composition is taken as c. 1100 CE. However, Mabinogion only exists in manuscripts from the 13th and 14th centuries, and some scholars mark it in AD 1200. In this story, Arthur's sword is called Kaledvivich, derived from the Latin Chalibs ("steel" or "iron") and " hard column "means. Kaledwyvich, as the name of the sword of power, most likely comes from the mythological Irish blade kaladbolg (meaning "insatiable") worn by King Fergus MacRoich in the Ulster cycle of Irish mythology.

Geoffrey of Monmouth calls Arthur's sword Caliburnus in medieval Latin, which uses the Latin chalys more directly for "steel", but designates a particularly heavy or effective blade. At the time Geoffrey wrote, Arthur's blade name could be understood as "the famous sword" or "great sword" due to the Chaliban's earlier associations with mythological weapons.

The French poet Ways (c. 1110-1174 AD) translated Geoffrey's work into old Russian folk literature and renamed the sword Shaliburn. Chrétien de Trois changed his name to Escalibor. When Arthur's legend was translated into English, Haliborn / Excalibor became Excalibur. Malory, based on the Vulgate cycle, refers to Arthur's sword as Excalibur shortly after Arthur found and drawn the sword in the stone, this name being associated with this weapon and the association stuck. Later, however, once that first sword is shattered in battle, it becomes clear that Arthur must obtain the "real Excalibur" from a mystical source. The Lady of the Lake and Merlin (who appears to be the magical power behind both swords) guide him where he is recommended to be. No explanation is important as to the strength or origin of the sword, and in fact Malory pays more attention to the scabbard.

Whether he is depicted as a sword in stone or given to the Lady of the Lake, it is clear that Excalibur comes from another realm. This motif follows from an established paradigm in the Celtic knowledge of magical weapons such as the spear of Cuchulainn or the sword of Fergus Mack Roych, which were forged in the mystical realm. However, the same device is used in the legends of many cultures around the world. For example, the great swords of Jangjiang and Moye also have a mystical origin. In the case of Excalibur, the sword is transformed from a powerful weapon into a symbol of divine inspiration and redemption. When the weapon is first mentioned in the work of Geoffrey Monmouth, no magical properties are ascribed to it.

Sword power
In Book IX, A History of the Kings of Great Britain, Caliber is first referred to as "the finest sword forged on the Isle of Avallon" and listed as an item of particular importance by Geoffrey along with Arthur's other equipment. As Arthur prepares to face the Saxons at the Battle of Bath, Geoffrey writes:

He put on his head a scroll from a golden tomb in the shape of a dragon. He also carried a shield on his shoulders called Pridwen, on the inside of which was painted the image of St. Mary, Mother of God, who she called back to his memory often and again and again. He was also geert with caliber, the finest sword forged on the island of Avallon; and the spear that adorned his right hand was called Ron, a great spear and a thick, complete assembly to be slaughtered. (188)

The Saxons broke their trust in Arthur after they vowed to negotiate peace, and so the struggle is a matter of personal honor as well as the necessary protection of his kingdom. Geoffrey describes a tough battle in which the Saxons hold the plateau and inflict heavy losses on the British at Arthur. The Saxons hold onto their position until the day is almost over, and then Arthur has had enough and will take the final blame for his position. Jeffrey writes:

Arthur winced at the stubbornness of his resistance, and the slowness of his own advance and the pushing out of his sword screams aloud in the name of Saint Mary, driving him quickly into the thickest press of the enemy. Whoever he touched and called to God he struck in one fell swoop, and on one occasion he did not faint in his attack until he killed four hundred and seventy men with his sword caliber alone. When the British saw it, they followed him closely and committed murder on all sides. (189)

Excalibur is described more or less the same every time it appears in history. In Malory's work, when Arthur is attacked by King Lot, he is first beaten until he unleashes the power of his sword:

With that, King Lot defeated King Arthur. His four knights saved him and put him on a horse; then he drew the sword of Excalibur, and it was so bright in the eyes of his enemies that it gave light like thirty torches. So he put them aside and killed many people. (thirteen)

Arthur confronts Lot at the beginning of the legendary version of Malory, and it appears that Excalibur is the same sword as Arthur that was previously recovered from the stone. This has created confusion between the two weapons, often referred to as being the same, but not.

SWORD IN THE STONE
The sword in the stone was added to Arthurian legend by the French poet Robert de Boron (12th century AD) in his Merlin. Robert de Boron presents the sword as being mounted on an anvil that the writers later turned to stone. The Vulgate Legend cycle depicts the sword Arthur drew from the stone and Excalibur, and this tradition continues in the cycle after Wulgate and is repeated in Malory's work.

Although Arthur's sword was identified as Excalibur at the beginning of Malory's version, it is clear that this is not the real Excalibur as this sword is destroyed in Arthur's battle with King Pellinor. Pellinore gets the best from Arthur after his sword is broken and tells him to give in, but the young king won't. To save his life, Merlin lays Pellinore to sleep and takes Arthur to retrieve the real Excalibur from the Lady of the Lake. Arthurian Norris J. Lacy writes:

In some texts (and in popular Arthurian lore) Excalibur is also the sword in stone, but such an identification is inconsistent with the tradition found, for example, in the cycle after the Vulgate and Malory, which made the sword Arthur (and eventually from him) was taken by hand in the lake. (176)

Since Excalibur is defined by its strength and strength, it cannot be the same weapon that is injured in Arthur's clash with Pellinor. According to Merlin, however, it is not Excalibur that is so unusual, but its scabbard. Merlin asks Arthur: "Which do you like better, sword or scabbard?" and Arthur replies, "The sword makes me happy." Then Merlin rebukes him:

“You are more stupid,” said Merlin, “because the scabbard is worth the tenth sword. As long as you have the vagina with you, you will never lose blood, you will be so badly injured, so keep the vagina with you at all times. "(37)

This detail later becomes significant in Malory's version when Arthur's sister Morgan le Fay steals the vagina. She hoped to be able to defeat Arthur with magic by pressing her lover Sir Accolon against Arthur and giving Accolon the real Excalibur and Arthur a fake (an action tool taken almost straight from the Irish Ulster cycle). When Arthur's sword breaks, he knows it's not Excalibur and he manages to defeat and kill Accolon. Morgan takes the magical scabbard in revenge and throws it into the lake. So condemned Arthur in his last fight with Mordred.

VALUE OF EXCALIBUR
The sword became more famous than the mighty scabbard and continues to be a symbol of Arthur's virtue and strength. Later works, including El Cid and Song of Roland, take up Excalibur's symbolism for her heroes. J.R.R.Tolkien's acclaimed Lord of the Rings trilogy draws on the symbolism of the sword of power that is broken and must be done in its entirety to convey the concept of the return of the right king. a plot-like plot device in a stone motif, in which the earth suffers after the death of Uther Pendragon until the rightful king can draw a magical stone sword.

More than a literary device, however, Excalibur became the noblest aspect of Arthur's legend. Although always described as the sword of power, that power is used in the interests of the people, justice, and not the selfish interests of the king. Excalibur is magically passed on to Arthur, Lady of the Lake; It is not a weapon that was forged in this world, but in another. The sword comes from that other realm, and once Arthur is defeated and dies, it must be returned there. This motif can not only be found in the Arthurian legend, but comes from the Celtic tradition, in which magical weapons must be returned to their source.

In some versions of the story, the knight Sir Gearflet, who survived the final battle between Arthur and Mordred, was tasked with throwing Excalibur back into the lake. in Malory it refers to Sir Bedevere. If Girflet or Bedevee, Arthur's order to bring Excalibur back to where it came from does not pass twice without attention, as the knight he sends on the order sees no point in throwing away such a noble and powerful weapon. This failure of one of Arthur's most trusted companions is in keeping with the Christian story of Judas' betrayal of Christ as intended and points to the same meaning: the world cannot understand or appreciate the efforts of the divine and will encourage them to rise higher than she thinks.

King Arthur is one of the most famous legendary rulers of the past. His image is reflected in many literary works and in the cinema. Everything to do with this great ruler of the British is extremely interesting and shrouded in a veil of secrecy. King Arthur's sword is another fascinating legend from Celtic tales. It is often confused with another famous weapon, the stone blade. The story of the Excalibur sword - we will find out how it appeared, where it went, and where it is now.

Legendary ruler of Great Britain - birth and education

Legends about King Arthur surfaced a long time ago. It was first mentioned in 600. A Welsh poem from this period tells of the battle between the British and the Anglo-Saxons. The stories of King Arthur became popular thanks to the 12th century priest and writer Geoffrey of Monmouth or Galfrid of Monmouth. He was the first to combine fragmentary information about the famous ruler of the British into one cohesive story.

Arthur is the son of the legendary British King Uther Pendragon. Immediately after birth, by agreement, he received the training of the great magician Merlin. He, in turn, later entrusted Sir Ector with the boy's upbringing because he did not want life at the royal court to shape Arthur.

Arthur's rise to power

There are two versions of how Arthur took over. According to the version from ancient literary sources, he was made King of Great Britain at the age of 15 after the death of his father Uther as a result of poisoning.

The story of King Arthur later took on the character of a legend. The famous sword in stone appears here. At first it was a stone slab with a weapon on it, which was crushed by an anvil. Later, a stone appeared with a sword and an inscription that whoever can pull out the weapon will become the King of the British. Arthur accidentally pulled out a sword while looking for a weapon for his brother Kay. Merlin declared the young man king, but many rulers did not recognize him and went to war against Arthur. He had to defend the throne and his right to it.

Arthur's reign and the first appearance of Excalibur

The young king made the city of Camelot his capital. According to another version, he ordered a city to be built from which he would rule the country. It's hard to say where the capital was. According to the most popular version, Camelot is considered to be the amphitheater of the city of Chester in the west of England. Geoffrey Monmouth believed in his famous book "A Tale of the Kings of Great Britain" that Camelot was Carleon Castle in Wales.

King Arthur of Camelot ruled Great Britain, Brittany, and Ireland before the Saxons conquered England. The young ruler had many enemies. For a while he fought with a sword made from a stone, but in a duel with Pelinor the weapon was broken. Then Merlin came to the aid of the king. He promised him Excalibur - a sword with wonderful properties. He pointed out a lake to Arthur with a hand with a blade visible in the water. The lady of the lake held the sword. She gave the weapon to the king on the condition that she should only bare it for a just cause and, in the event of the ruler's death, return a wonderful relic to a lake. Arthur promised to grant her request.

The appearance and characteristics of the sword

It was usually depicted as a straight blade with a simple cruciform handle adorned with precious stones. The scabbard of the sword had magical power - it healed any wound. They always had to be carried next to Excalibur, otherwise they would lose their magical power. The sword gave its owner strength and agility in battles.

Excalibur - names of wonderful weapons

The sword of King Arthur in different eras has been called differently: Caliburn, Kalad-kolg, Excalibor. The name we know comes from the French

The origin of the sword

The legend of the Excalibur sword goes back to the distant past. There are different versions of the appearance of this weapon. According to one of them, it was created especially for Arthur by the Lady of the Lake and was taken with her after the king's death. According to another legend, it was created by the great Merlin.

There is a version in which Excalibur, a sword with wonderful properties, was forged by Velund, the Scandinavian god smith.

Arthur dies and Excalibur disappears

When the king was looking for Guinevere's escaped wife, his throne was usurped by his nephew (according to another version, the illegitimate son) Mordred, whom Arthur left as governor. When the king heard of the turbulence, he returned and fought the traitor in the Kammlan field. The entire British army was killed in this battle. Arthur was fatally wounded by Mordred. He returned the sword to the woman from the lake and died.

But there are other versions of what happened to the king. According to one of them, he was taken away by four queens. According to legend, there was a portal to other worlds here and sorceresses were educated. The great ruler of Great Britain is said to be sleeping in anticipation of the day the country will need his help.

A hill in Somerset County is considered a place associated with King Arthur. At its feet is Glastonbury - one of the oldest cities in Great Britain. There was a large settlement here even before the Romans came. In the 12th century, during the restoration work in the abbey, the sarcophagi of Arthur and Guinevere were discovered, as the monks said. This place is considered a portal to another world - Avalon.

Excalibur sword - where is the legendary relic?

According to the legends about the life of King Arthur, before his death he asked that the famous sword be thrown into the water of a nearby lake. This was done by the last survivor. It was only after making sure that his request was granted that Arthur died. After that, Excalibur, the sword of the great king of the British, was lost forever.

The Italian researcher Mario Moiragi seriously believes in his book "The Secret of San Galgano" that the prototype of King Arthur's famous weapon still rests in the rock of the Abbey of San Galliano. It dates back to the 12th century, so there is no doubt about the authenticity of the old weapon. The researcher believes that the legend of Excalibur was inspired by the sword of Saint Galliano, who stuck his weapon in the rock as a sign of non-violence.

Conclusion

Does the Excalibur Sword Really Exist? History knows many examples when the ancient legend became a reality. The stories of King Arthur are surprisingly believable - we know the full story of the great ruler of Britain in the Middle Ages, and this leads us to believe that the legend about him has real soil.

Excalibur - the sword of the legendary British King Arthur, which has its own ancient and beautiful story, has long been an ancient relic, the discovery of which one can only dream. For modern researchers, it is like the Holy Grail of the Knights of the Round Table - many dream of finding it and believing in the reality of the existence of a wonderful relic.