Why did the Xiongnu invade China

Battle of Baideng - Battle of Baideng

The Battle of Baideng (白 登 之 戰) was a military conflict between Han China and the Xiongnu in 200 BC. The Han Dynasty of China fell in 200 BC. Entered the territory of the Xiongnu and tried to subdue them. However, the Xiongnu united their forces under Modu Shanyu and surrounded the Han emperor Gaozu in Baideng. The siege was not eased for seven days when, at Chen Ping's suggestion, the Han royal court sent spies to bribe Modus Frau.

In an alternative report, Grousset says the Xiongnu invaded Shanxi, China, and besieged Taiyuan. Gaozu broke the siege and drove the Xiongnu north, but was blocked by them on the Baideng Plateau near Datong in the far north of Shanxi.


After the defeat in Baideng, the Han emperor abandoned a military solution to the Xiongnu threat. Instead, in 198 B.C. The courtier Liu Jing (劉敬) sent to negotiate. The peace agreement that was eventually reached between the parties included a Han princess who was with the Chanyu was married (called heqin 和 親); regular tribute to silk, liquor and rice to the Xiongnu; Equal status between states; and the Great Wall as a mutual border. This treaty set the pattern for the relationship between Han and Xiongnu for about sixty years. Until the Emperor Wu of Han decided to revive the policy of waging the war against Xiongnu after the marriage covenant was no longer effective.


further reading

  • Yap, Joseph P., pp. 71-76. "Wars with the Xiongnu, a translation from Zizhi Tongjian" AuthorHouse (2009) ISBN 978-1-4490-0604-4