Astrologically there are double flame indicators

Work on the myth

How do we perceive time - as a historical and existential quantity? What are the meanings of the myth, and how does it deal with it? Ultimately: how are the images and similes, the techniques and strategies with which life ensures tolerability determined? Blumenberg's book Arbeit am Mythos discusses its value: again from a functional point of view. Because in the mythical stories and parables humanity survives as well as in the palpable armor. The unfamiliar and the uncanny, the strange and the inconvenient change to the acceptable and acceptable in the transposition of the myth. But the work of the philosopher is based on the fact that he makes this step recognizable in its consequences. So Blumenberg designs the subject with philological accuracy and with the art of the ingenious exegete - unbiddable in the parts that are dedicated to the Prometheus myth with a view to Goethe. Martin Meyer, Neue Zrcher Zeitung

Hans Blumenberg (1920-1996) was Professor of Philosophy at the University of Mnster. His work is published by Suhrkamp Verlag.

Hans Blumenberg working on the myth

Suhrkamp

This edition follows the sixth edition 2 0 0 1, which in turn is based on the third, revised edition from 1984.

Bibliographic information of the Deutsche Bibliothek The Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie http://dnb.ddb.de suhrkamp taschenbuch Wissenschaft 1805 First edition 2006 Suhrkamp Verlag Frankfurt am Main 1979 All rights reserved, especially those of the translation, the public lecture and the transmission by radio and television, including individual parts. No part of the work may be reproduced in any form (by photography, microfilm or other processes) or processed, copied or distributed using electronic systems without the written consent of the publisher. Cover based on designs by Willy Fleckhaus and Rolf Staudt Printed by: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden Printed in Germany ISBN 3-518-29405-9 2 3 4 5 6 - Ii 10 09 08 07 06

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Part One Archaic Separation of Powers I II III IV After the absolutism of reality, the name breaks into the chaos of the unnamed> significance <

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Part Two History of the Stories I II III IV The Distortion of the Perspective of Time Basic Myth and Art Myth Myths and Dogmas Bringing the myth to an end

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Third part The deferral of fire robbery I The reception of the sources creates the sources of reception I I Sophists and cynics: Antithetical aspects of promethy I I I Return from the groundlessness I V Aesthetic cheerfulness

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Fourth Part Against a God Only One God I "Igniter of an Explosion" I I A conflict of gods

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I I I Prometheus becomes Napoleon, Napoleon Prometheus I V Readings of the> tremendous saying *

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Part Five The Titan in His Century I Passage through the philosophy of history I I Again on the rock of silent loneliness I I I If not the myth, then at least bring one to an end

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According to the absolutism of reality


They could not think the decisive divine far enough away from themselves, the whole world of gods was only a means to keep the decisive things away from the earthly body, to have air to breathe human beings. Kafka to Max Brod, August 7, 1920 To those tired of this success, the mastery of reality may appear to be a dream that has been dreamed up and has never been worth dreaming. Cultivating distress and discomfort is easy if one takes for granted and no longer notes the conditions under which life experiences its distress only in marginal problems. Cultures that have not yet mastered their reality continue to dream the dream and would wrest its realization from those who believe they have already awakened from it. If you turn your gaze from the professionally or even professorially portrayed horrors of the present and especially the future back to those of the past and the pre-past, you come across the need to present an initial situation that meets the requirements of that old status naturalis of philosophical theories of culture and state . This borderline concept of the extrapolation of fabulous historical features into the archaic can be formally defined in a single definition: as the absolutism of reality. It means that man had the conditions of his existence almost not in hand and, what is more important, simply did not believe in his hand. He may, sooner or later, have interpreted this fact that the other is overpowered by assuming that he is overpowered. What justifies this borderline concept is the common core of all currently respected theories of anthropogenesis.

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Whatever the pre-human being, which was induced by a forced or accidental change of its habitat, to perceive the sensory advantage of self-erecting to the bipedal gait and to stabilize it against all internal disadvantages of the organic function - it always had the protection of a more hidden one and the adapted way of life in order to expose oneself to the risks of the expanded horizon of its perception as that of its perceptibility. It was not yet an advance of curiosity, no gain in pleasure in enlargement, no exaltation of the gain in verticality, but the mere use of a chance of survival by avoiding the pressure of selection that would have driven irreversible specialization. It was a leap in the situation that made the unoccupied long-term horizon a permanent acknowledgment of the hitherto unknown. What arose in the connection of the transition from the shrinking rainforest to the savannah with the settlement of caves, was the simultaneous mastering of new performance requirements in the acquisition of food outside of the habitat with the old advantage of undisturbed reproduction and rearing of the offspring in need of learning for a long time, now easily shielded in protection Housing. The formula "hunters and mothers" includes overcoming the loss of the old security of the jungle. What is called the absolutism of reality here is the epitome of the correspondences to this leap in the situation, which is inconceivable without the excess performance as a result of abrupt inappropriateness. This includes the ability to prevent, anticipation of what has not yet entered, an attitude towards what is absent behind the horizon. All converging on the performance of the term. But before that, the pure authority of indefinite prevention is fear. To put it paradoxically, it is the intentionality of consciousness without an object. Through it the whole horizon becomes equivalent as the totality of the directions from which 'it can come'. Freud described the ego's total helplessness in the face of overwhelming danger as the core of the traumatic situation and saw the compensation for such helplessness in the early childhood demand for love. In ontogenetic birth trauma, Ferenczi has the correlate of the phylogenetic

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A transition from the sea to the land is made out, and there is no need for speculation to recognize the repetition of this basic situation even when stepping out of the security of the primeval forest onto the S a v a n n e. If we have to look for the origin of man in the type of escape fire, we understand that all signals that trigger escape reactions must have the end of fear before the biotope change, but do not need to reach the dominant state of fear as long as there was mere movement to resolve the situation. If, however, one imagines that this solution no longer or no longer succeeded, then the situation forcing people to flee has to be overcome or avoided before they are. The transition from the current response to the point-by-point response to the competent maximum voltage of the alarmed organic system means that resources are required to cope with dangers, even if they cannot be avoided. Inevitably, the de-specification of the state of tension grows with the ambiguity and indeterminacy of the data that characterize the situation. There is a willingness to take a positive response to the entire H o r i z o n t. It has its functional value in the independence of certain or already determinable D o u n ting f a c ts. This, in turn, is an attitude towards reality that can be sustained over the longer term for episodes, but cannot simply be brought to life. The general tension has to be reduced again and again to allow for special f a c t o r s. In other words, in the language of the N e u r o l o g e n K u r t Goldstein, this means that fear has to be rationalized again and again into fear, both in the history of mankind and in that of the individual. This does not happen through experience and knowledge, but through art, such as the supposition of the familiar for the untrustworthy, the knowledge of the inexplicable, the designation for the unnamable. One thing is advanced in order to make the negative valuation the object of defensive, appealing, softening or depotenting action. By name the identity of soldier F a c t o r e n is documented and made accessible, a q u i v a l e n t of the

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Generated dealings. What has become identifiable through the name is lifted out of its unfamiliarity through the metaphor, and through the telling of stories it is revealed in what it is all about. Panic and paralysis as the two extremes of fearful behavior can be resolved under the appearance of calculable behavior and regulated manners, also when the results of the magical and cultic "consideration" occasionally mock the tendency to win favor with people among the mighty. To present an extreme value, we must remember the hysteria of the Aztecs before the break-in of the Spaniards, in which the priests waded in the blood of the ritual massacres and the more cruel wars had to be waged the more difficult it became, the masses of the gods to procure suitable prisoners of sacrifice from the surrounding peoples. And all of this to save the empire from a danger that the asterisks heralded and that came true on the date of the prophecy. But there was a lack of those who possessed the nobility characteristics to be kind to the gods as sacrifices. Fear is related to the unoccupied horizon of the possibilities of what may come. This is the only reason why it can appear, in its maximized size, as "fear of life". Despite its biological function for states of separation and transition under non-preformed levels of danger, fear is never realistic. As an after-phenomenon in humans, it does not first become pathological, it is. It is therefore of no avail when Freud says that fear becomes neurotic through its infantile relationship to danger, because it reproduces reactions that no longer fit the situation of mature individuals. Anyone who reacts out of fear or in fear has lost the mechanism of imaginative instances that are put forward. The precedent instance can also be the disregarded form of civic courtesy, the "critical" destruction of which creates the desired "nudity" between those encountered, but also removes its protection from the weaker ones, who were previously never to be identified. It describes the type of acts of overreaction, as they are committed by those who cannot understand metaphors. This applies not only to their generation, but also to

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whose hand y: transfers must be made, but not taken literally. The inability to make substitutions or to allow them to apply is almost identical to the other, delegation of competences to others and representation for decisions of the people by a few. It is a rigid realism of immediacy, which wants to decide everything for itself or to participate in everything in order to refuse the favor of the institutions not to have to be involved in everything itself. > Art of living <- this elementary skill of dealing with oneself and keeping house, which has already become obsolete as a word - had to be learned as an orga n d a r, since the human being has no specifically sorted, exclusively in its> relevance

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to make clear of circumstances. This includes that which is inaccessible to experience beyond the horizon. To occupy the last horizon as the mythical "edge of the world" is only the anticipation of the origins and degeneration of the unfamiliar. The homo pictor is not only the creator of cave images for magical hunting practices, but also the creature who plays over the lack of reliability in his world with the projection of images. The absolutism of images and desires opposes the absolutism of reality. In Totem and Taboo Freud spoke of the omnipotence of thoughts as the signature of archaic animism. We must remember that after leaving the forest there is a division of life into caves and the wild. The closed space allows what the open one forbids: the rule of desire, magic, illusion, the preparation of the effect through thought. But not only through this. The illusory power through magic is less one of thought than one of 'procedure'. Anyone who adheres to a rule, the meaning and origin of which nobody (any longer) knows, can achieve a precisely defined effect that is not tied to the place and time of the procedure. As Freud understood Haeckel's basic biogenetic law for himself, ontogenetic 'narcissism' corresponds to that phylogenetic 'animism' in the main feature of overestimating one's own mental processes. This is the prerequisite for a concept of reality that allows consciousness of it to arise from the unmistakable objection of reality made against narcissism. It may be a further step towards the construction of the facts, to embrace the absolutism of desires and images as the spawn of the cave first to be presented in isolation from absolutism of reality. The connection of one to the other, whether one might call it magic or cult, would only be a secondary confrontation out of an already structured, already differentiated world of its own. In the magic of his cave paintings, the hunter reaches over and over the world from his case. I try with caution to introduce a literary clarification that also comes from the situation of an absolutism, of course a late artifact. In 1939 Ernst Jnger wrote in Auf den

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Marble cliffs spread its allusions to the events of the time in a mythical setting. After the battle of Alta Plana, which stands for the events of June 30th 1 9 3 4, the narrator made the decision to resist through pure spiritual power alone. He does it in the library and herbarium. Contrary to this decision, he and his allies sometimes fell back like children into that early world in which terror is omnipotent. It seemed not yet possible to exercise pure intellectual power. The narrator justifies this with a single sentence: We did not yet know the full rule that is bestowed on man. This could roughly describe what I have placed before mythical empowerment as the status naturalis: in it the possibility of man to rule is unknown, unrecognized, untried. At the same time, the art myth of the marble cliffs shows that everything that man has gained in mastery over reality through the experience of his history and ultimately through knowledge, could not take away his endangerment, indeed his longing, to the level of his powerlessness, as it were archaic resignation to sink back. However, in order for this decline not only to be possible, but to become the epitome of new desires, something must have been forgotten. This forgetting is the achievement of distance through 'working on myth' itself. \ It is a condition for everything that has become possible on this side of horror, the absolutism of reality. At the same time, it is also a condition for the desire to return home to the archaic irresponsibility of the absolute surrender of powers that cannot be contradicted need not be resisted, and is able to penetrate the surface of consciousness.I take it as a mythical form of expression for this fact when Ferenczi, in his attempt at a genital theory from 1924, assigned the birth trauma to the desire to return to the womb, which in the sexual act has to be content with symbolic fulfillment. Man has always been on this side of the absolutism of reality, but he never completely attains the certainty that he has reached the turning point in his history at which the relative power of reality over his consciousness and his fate

Part one: the archaic separation of powers has turned into the supremacy of the subject. There is no criterion for this turn, for this point of no return. To those who saw themselves as no longer catching up with science and enlightenment, the Middle Ages still seemed to be of the type of a pre-world of uncontrolled and uncontrollable powers that were nothing but names and addressees of helplessness. It was theological absolutism - without its moderation of the institutions of grace administration - which made the Middle Ages appear dark in retrospect after the founding act of the modern age. Even Goethe hardly wanted to believe Romanticism's first corrections to this historical self-confidence and the prehistory attributed to it. A m 2 1. April 1 8 3 1 he writes in his diary:. . . In the centuries when man found nothing but horror, he must be happy, since he was rejected in himself so that instead of the objects that had been taken from him he could create illusions in their place. . . It is a view of nature that the viewer completely misses in the rediscovered Gothic painting; consequently every move to the corresponding metaphysics: to pantheism. However, the polytheism that Goethe sees weakened at present in the world of saints is the bridging of the embarrassment of being unable to be a pantheist in these centuries for lack of a view of nature, but not being able to do without the illusions. According to the note, the objects were "taken" from this late "pre-world" of one's own world - one only needs to replace the expression with the term because they had not yet been won in order to relate the train of thought to every previously thoughtless early period of man do. What remains is the device of the images against the horrors, the preservation of the subject through his imagination against the undeveloped object. It is not an arbitrary, no matter how small fraction, of theory that becomes ascertainable, but the degree of its dispensability - without considering the effort with which the later aesthetic metaphysician wanted to make it dispensable again. The contradiction that seems to enter the construct of the archaic concept of reality: absolutism of reality on the one hand, omnipotence of ideas on the other, is repeated in the description of the dream. The dream is pure

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Impotence in the face of the dreamed, complete elimination of the subject and his self-disposal in the midst of his pictures with the extreme disposition to a state of fear; but at the same time it is the pure domination of desires, which makes being awakened the epitome of all disappointments, whatever the censorship under which the psychic mechanism is placed. To fly in a dream - Nietzsche's formula for what he calls his prerogative - is the metaphor of vain realism with the most intense illusion of reality. Dreams are the faithful interpreters of our inclinations, wrote Montaigne; but we have to learn that the performers again need the theoretically sophisticated interpreter to communicate to us. Since this is only about the clarification of the supposed contradiction in the hypothetical construct of archaic 'realism', the detour to a witty aperitif from Stanislaw J e r z y Lee may be permitted: I dreamed of Freud last night. What does that mean? What the dream means is only of secondary importance that which perhaps connects it with the world of men and women; first and foremost he makes a limit of reality prostration accessible. Even in the philosophical schools, Plutarch adds to his account in the biography of Pericles, the story of how he coped with the fear of an eclipse. When he set out for the siege of Epidaurus with a hundred and fifty ships in the Peloponnesian War and they were already ready to sail, the sunlight suddenly went out. Everyone was seized with horror. In this darkness, later dated August 3, 431, the model of the Thai of Miletus had evidently failed to deprive the event of its ominous content through theoretical prediction. Pericles' means of getting the helmsman of his ship, who was afraid of not knowing yet, back on track, consisted in holding his cloak in front of his eyes and asking the man who was so darkened whether he was still having a terrible accident or believe to perceive the premeaning for such a thing. The seaman had to say no, and Pericles completely frightened him by asking what the difference was between what was happening here about him and what was happening there in the sun, except that the sun was shining through

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a larger object than obscured by a cloak. This story is told in the schools of the philosophers, concludes Plutarch, and one can see from it what philosophy was more concerned with than admiration for the cosmos. But the rhetorical setback of the anecdote in relation to what the theory's chance of frightening people lay in cannot be overlooked. For while the Athenian statesman believes he is adding a bit of model-like explanation, the helmsman will probably have been calmed down by the fact that, to put it paradoxically, he saw nothing of the eclipse and could leave himself to mere persuasion. The anecdote illustrates even more: 'The borderline between myth and logos is imaginary and does not make it a done matter to ask about the logos of myth in working through the absolutism of reality. The myth itself is a piece of high-level work of the logo. It may be that magic was first able to create the benevolent appearance that man could do more for the conditions of his life than his skills could actually prove. The directions from which beneficence or misdeeds were to be obtained must have been determined and named beforehand. Instances of affection have to become fabulous in order to wrest favor from them or to deny them disfavor. It is not mere metaphorical serviceability when actions are seen in appearances. One of the basic figures in which human history is represented right down to documented times is that the perception of one's interest in reality, before it could even become realistic, was played out in illusion and defended as an unrecognized fiction . The wide field of health care practices gives d a for the material; but in principle one will see nothing else in the cultic cultivation of powers and powers. The narrow zone of realistic behavior is always surrounded by a field of action and feasibility suggestions. The burden of proof as to where the limits of the influenceability of the world would be fabulous always lay with failure - and only with those for whom there was no secondary solution to their causation; a rare

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exceptionally. This presentation carries an enriching behavior of the as-if, the success of which consisted in its provisional or final indisputability. Mankind has lived on irrefutable assumptions for most of its history and the bulk of its consciousness, and perhaps still does - it is a suspicion, incapable of proof. Since happening was interpreted as doing, Nietzsche's formula is a characteristic of all mythologies. But it is a vision, primarily an expression of the phenomena, as it looks in its use of causality. Most urgent and premature was certainly the interest in callability, averting or devotion, influenceability in every sense, also in a certain reliability, insofar as it did not have to be that of jealousy or enmity. With his deportation of the world of gods into the space between the worlds, Epicurus still showed us what tied man's interest in them, recommended their continued existence even beyond the most sober atomistic worldview. When he writes in his letter to Menoikeus that it would be better to subscribe to the myth of God than to become a slave to the necessity of physicists, he means this in consideration of the benefits in reducing the absolutism of reality. There is still nothing to be suspected of Schiller's "gentle arc of necessity," whose "floor" threatens man; he is a figure of fine resignation, presupposing the dishonoring of physical legality by ethical law. On the other hand, in the concept of ancient atomistics, it saw "chance" as a chance at least for those who knew how to avoid the risks of nature and stayed in the "garden" instead of going into the wilderness. The garden is not arbitrarily the home of the Epicurus school. Epicurus gods are more than tolerated and more than survivors. They are conceived according to the ideal of the wise man who does not care about the reality of the worlds because he has weighed their possibilities as not concerning him. The metacosmies, in the absolute emptiness of which the ancient gods of Olympus live on, are something like the submission of the cosmos to the platonic-stoic line: the idea - if there could be such a thing here - of the unaffected and unsubstantiated of what makes the worlds and makes up the perfect depotentation of their reality. The

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Wise Epicurus lives as if he were a god, and that is only possible - without realism. But there is inevitably a quantum of realism in even having an idea of ​​such acosmic gods. For, according to the concept of knowledge of this philosophy, the wise could never know what it means to live with your back to the worlds without the burden of their reality, if there weren't really the gods in empty space whose flying images reach him. According to this point of ancient polytheism, only modern pantheism will again offer a solution which, according to Heine's formula, confirms the re-establishment of man in his rights to God or even confirms it as fulfilled. If one may put it this way, the myth could not even have dreamed of it. Just as he pursued the dismantling of the absolutism of reality, it was the distribution of a block of opaque power, over and against man, over many powers that play off one another or even cancel one another. Not only to be able to shield oneself with one against the other, but to see the one preoccupied and entangled with the other from primeval times, was the benefit of man from their sheer multiplicity. From the point of view of religious history, it is a narrowing of a diffusely spreading quality of eeriness and indifference to enclaves of strictly sanctioned limitation. In them, Rudolf Otto believed he had recognized "the sacred" in his U r form. In it he started from the anthropological conception of everything a priori in the Kantian schools of Fries and Nelson. If one follows the construction of a genuine absolutism of reality, then the fluids of Mana, Orenda, Manitu and Wakanda named by Otto are most likely to be seen as remnants of the aura that originally surrounds the phenomena of the world, which is overwhelmed and inaccessible. What is and remains taboo should then - focused on itself and pars pro toto - represent the overall coloration of an indefinite unfriendliness that originally stuck to the world, probably also simulating here and there in the service of the existing. The taboo, like other strong sanctions, would be the selective exaggeration of the unwillingness with which the world

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had opposed to seeing. It would be, if you will, their "symbolic" invocation in order to keep the enclosure on reservations and insertion into the intermundia of culture present. The counterclaim for the domestication of the whole is served in the fear to awe of such enclaves. Man's "politics" in dealing with a reality that is incompatible with him is grasped at too late a point, if one follows the religious-scientific aspect to "the sacred" and does not perceive in it the already institutionalized form of reduction of the absolutism of reality, that sheer unlife and unwillingness to serve compared to this dilettante of life, as Scheler called man. It is no coincidence that the 3 rd Greek myth tried to bring the world quality of alienation to designed concentrates, translated into the optical, hardly ever touched the haptic. Among the Gorgons, who come from the hostile sea and its monstrous gods before Poseidon and who inhabit the vague edge of the world beyond the Ocean, it is above all Medusa with her petrified sight, on which inapproachability and insufferability have almost arguably condensed: Athena Even too far removed from this quality for loveliness and cultural friendliness, Perseus has to get the Gorgoneion to reinforce her armor. The hero has taken her advice to approach the Gorgon only by means of the reflection in his metal shield. With regard to the primeval horrors, the visual arts have achieved only poor things. In this way she nourished the secret thought that the jealousy of a very peculiar beauty might have hidden behind the verbal accumulation of atrocities. It will not be possible to decide what is the bridge to aestheticization or what is its excuse. At the end of the path there is the entry into the Canon. When the Bavarian Crown Prince Ludwig acquired the high relief of Medusa from the Palazzo Rondanini in Rome, Goethe received an abgu as a gift in 1825 and thanked him with the words: For almost forty years I have been missing the usual sight of a structure that we can imagine in the highest terms suggests how she

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developed in antiquity from the daily present. With the replica of this magnificent treasure he was made happy beyond measure. In front of him stands the long-awaited work of art, dishonest of a mythical primeval age, which, otherwise terrible because of unfortunate effects, appears benevolent and healing to him. For Goethe, the head of Medusa is the triumph of classicism. It stands for the overpowering of the horrors of prehistoric times no longer through myth, not through religion, but through art. When he had such a long-awaited presence at the Frauenplan, it has already become a distant memory, since he lived in Rome opposite the Rondanini's Palazzo and had often seen the marbled mask, of remarkable excellence - a sight that by no means petrified but rather the artistic sense and wonderfully animated, as he did on January 2. Writes to Zelter January 1826. It is a unique paradigm of "work on myth" that may have started with the apotropaion of naming. Franz Rosenzweig spoke of the name breaking into the chaos of the unnamed. But perhaps the word "chaos" goes with what is familiar from myths and cosmogonies, as if these fossils were human history. No matter how late it may be, what we get to grips with through the traditional names, it is a piece of conquering a past that has been withdrawn from us, which brings shape and face. What is created can be called an "ability to appeal." It paves the way for magical, ritual or cultic influence. Again in the interpretation of institutions, practices, and rituals, the power meant by them is entangled in a story that is naturally that of their at least occasionally greater sociability. Every story makes an Achilles heel of sheer power. Even the "world" made its creator, scarcely when its dogma was completed, necessary to justify the fact that his work was given a history. The historical power of myth lies not in the origins of its contents, not in the catchment area of ​​its subjects and stories, but in the fact that it is no longer anything else according to its process, its "form". I would never call it the "Hellenic Faith" as in the gods of Homer and

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Hesiods an "aftermath" of other gods who stand behind them or have absorbed them takes place. One can talk about Edvard Lehmann's formula that the myth is destined to be overcome, although I fear that it has a fatal connotation. But it will be far more important to describe it as a manifestation of overcoming, of gaining distance, of softening bitter seriousness. When it comes to transformations of sociability, one should not only think of attitudes of admiration and favor, but also of those of challenge, of constraint and even of devious cunning of the type of Prometheus and worldwide trickster figures. To allow the god to endure curse, ridicule and blasphemous cult means to feel the limit and, if possible, to shift which one can bet on. To irritate the savior when he comes, to exacerbate the wickedness so that he no longer considers it to be justifiable, to let himself be delayed, to test through sin whether the commitment to grace is absolute - all this belongs to the repertoire of Forms of coercion against a power, which means everything to insure oneself. In Gnostic circles, multitudes of unwholesome sinners have always tried their hand at orgies of wickedness in order to stimulate their "foreign god" to eschatological deeds according to the rules of the god of the world. Whoever finds the law of impoverishment sees everything drifting to the point where everything can only be different. Frivolity is only a weak deduction from all this, a means of anthropomorphic relaxation in the myth: one can do or say something like that without being struck by lightning. It is the preliminary stage of enlightening satire, of rhetorical scularization as a stylistic device of the spirit that is still uncertain of its enlightenment. Again: before the sacrosanct is declared dead, one can pretend that it does not exist without the devil taking one away. Since Goethe's devil is no longer allowed to fetch Faust like the lylarlowes, the portrayal of the "work on myth" is once conjured up with a proof of favor that is weighted by modern times. The "virtues" of his epoch went well.After all, in order to act out the character, the revolutionary only needs to hang on to the tail of a police horse,

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to prove to the reluctant comrade: it does not kick or work - it is specially trained not to do anything. The mythical gods of the Greeks were rebuked by the philosophers for their immorality and excluded from the use of reason. But their immorality is only the late reflex of a behavior that cannot be measured against human standards, although it is not entirely short-circuited and inscrutable: at least it should be difficult for carelessness. Nevertheless, this was the front of reason, on which one believed oneself to be thoroughly and finally superior. Rhetorically, the writers of the first Christian centuries anticipated much of what the Enlightenment of the modern age was supposed to bring forward and play against its cause. Should one laugh or get angry, writes Tertullian to the Gentiles with linguistic contempt at the beginning of the third century, when gods are accepted who are like humans cannot even be? That is the briefest formula for looking back at the myth of the beneficiaries of its supposed absurdity. It is also the formula of a complete misunderstanding of everything that has been done with the Pantheon. In this, too, the arrogance of the new epoch anticipated what was to be added to it by its successor. Nothing is more instructive than to watch the accompaniment of the "final conquests" of the absurd and absurd in history, in order to learn at least this from it, since it is not so easily conquered. Gods, those were, if one follows Tertullian's grim humor, those that humans are not allowed to be, but before that they were also those that humans cannot be. It is only later that it is their immorality that ultimately qualifies them for satyr play and comedy, for the enjoyment of their not unrestricted violence: they not only require cunning deception through metamorphosis to seduce each other, but also hinder each other in the unrestricted exercise of their will and their whims . This already applies to the exposure of the starting position in the Iliad after all the nuances of the distribution of forces that the previous stories bring into the stories. Apollo's priest offended by the robbery of his daughter

According to the absolutism of reality ij drives his god to punish the Achaeans, who then have to take the booty away from Achilles to his anger and bring it back to the priest. The offended Achilles turns to his mother Thetis, former bride of Zeus, whom the latter had renouncedly married to Peleus. She may urge the Olympian to punish the Achaeans because they had stolen something from her son for the benefit of his son's priest. The mother-son relationship between Thetis and Achilles takes precedence over the father-son relationship between Zeus and Apollo. And it is even stronger than the relationship between Zeus and Hera, who, as the guardian of the marriage, is angry with the Trojans because of the robbery of Helena and cannot allow injustice for the Greeks. Something else comes into play: Hera is mighty in her inviolability, but she is involved in an old conspiracy against Zeus with Poseidon and Athena. On this occasion, Thetis had saved the reign of Zeus by summoning the ostentatious, powerful Briareos, one of the hundred armed men. Whatever the conditions of religious-historical and cult-local stratification behind this initial situation, in the dismantling stage reached by epic poetry, the separation of powers is already the cause of a cheerfulness that bears no relation to the consequences between Trojans and Achaeans on the theater of war. The Enlightenment, which did not want to be the Renaissance again and considered the competition between antiquity and modernity to be decided, has just as little forgiven myth for its frivolity as Christian theology has forgiven the seriousness of its dogmatism. It sought to meet this indirectly through that. E t w a in the dispute over the silence of the old oracles at the beginning of the Christian r a, as Fontenelle had also fought literarily decisive. She saw the analogue of the sacrifice of Iphigenia demanded by Agamemnon, but also carried out, especially in God, who demanded the sacrifice of the only and late son from the patriarch Abraham and only broken off the performance when he had demonstrated obedience. It meant little for the moral criticism of myth, as of the Bible, because here the goddess Artemis had withdrawn her consecrated virgin from sacrifice, there God recognized obedience and replaced human sacrifice with the institution of animal sacrifice.

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First part: Archaic separation of powers

It is crucially more important, because indirectly the Father God was meant and affected, who, even according to the dogma of unbelievable, should be able to allow the sacrifice of his own son to be offered to compensate for a relatively modest fruit crime. The Enlightenment saw and evaluated all of this from the terminus ad quem; it was incapable of turning to the terminus a quo and paid for this incapacity with its defeat by historicism. The favorite piece of their moral criticism of the biblical God, the sacrificial scene on Mount Morijja, examined the statement from the point of view of the almost complete immorality, which according to its maxim has already been set. The reversal of the aspect of time would have opened up the view of a limit at which the possible and the usual for millennia were finally broken off precisely because the self-contradicting will of God sensibly represented the before and after in a scene. Nothing could have made equally urgent what should no longer be possible, such as the telling of this story over the generations who might be ready again and again to search for the more weighty and effective sacrifice for their God as soon as he denied himself the expectations, failed to meet alliance obligations. Also behind the sacrifice on Aulis, forcing a favorable wind for the Greek fleet to Troy, stands the human history of human sacrifices, which ends here through the intervention of the goddess, the last traces of which are not missing even in the tradition, which has repeatedly been purified from the abhorrence of the descendants. Iphigenia, who was transferred to the land of the Taurians by Artemis, is still involved in human sacrifices there as a priestess in the temple of the goddess, which is precisely what indicates this as something that should only be possible in the distant Scythian land. Herodotus had named Iphigenia himself as the deity of the Taurians, to whom they made the hideous sacrifices of the shipwrecked Greek sailors and prisoners of war. It is therefore an act of Hellenic domestication if Orestes and Pylades are to steal the wooden statue of the Tauride Artemis and Iphigenia helps them. She explains to King Thoas that the goddess did not want these men to be sacrifices and instead wants a gift of lambs. For the function of the institutional renunciation of human

According to the absolutism of reality

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