What are acute sports injuries

Sports injuries

Acute sports injuries

Sports injuries usually occur when parts of the musculoskeletal system are suddenly put under incorrect strain or strain. This is the case, for example, with an ankle injury, which is considered to be the most common acute sports injury: the ankle is twisted by a misstep; This results in strains or tears in the ligaments and possibly broken bones.

External influences, e.g. B. falls or collisions, on the other hand, lead to an acute sports injury less often. Typical examples are the broken collarbone in a bicycle fall or the "horse kiss", a thigh bruise caused by an (opposing) kick while playing football.

Chronic sports injuries

Chronic sports injuries develop as a result of poorly healed, acute injuries or overuse of tissue (tendons, bones, joints).

Damage to joint structures often leads to premature wear of the affected joint. A typical example is knee arthrosis after cruciate ligament or meniscus injuries. Damaged tendons, capsules, ligaments and muscle fibers are weak points that lead to an increased susceptibility to renewed sports injuries. Sometimes the long-term consequences of acute sports injuries are also relatively discreet; so expresses z. B. damage to the outer ligaments of the ankle typically results in a feeling of insecurity, especially when walking on uneven terrain. The most common cause of chronic sports injuries, however, are not sports accidents, but persistent incorrect or excessive strain on the musculoskeletal system, e.g. B. through wrong technique or excessive training. If the body's ability to compensate for the incorrect load is exceeded, repeated, smallest injuries (microtraumas) and increasing inflammatory reactions occur. In this way, chronic, extremely painful irritation occurs on tendons and tendon attachments, and early signs of wear and tear on joints. Overstrained bones initially react with - not noticeable - remodeling processes, which may lead to fractures with continued stress.

Recurring pain and restricted mobility are alarm signals that indicate that the desired stress is causing the disease over-Load has become. In this case, it is important to critically analyze the training process and personal requirements, if possible with the help of a trainer or sports medicine specialist. A break in sports, a reduction in training intensity and / or an improvement in technique are often sufficient to get the problem under control; occasionally, however, there is only a change to another sport that is more in line with individual performance.

Chronic sports injuries occasionally occur outside the musculoskeletal system as well. This is a typical example Cauliflower ear of the boxer, permanent disfigurement of the auricle due to repeated bleeding and cartilage injuries. At the Surfer ear wind and cold lead to benign bone growths in the ear canal.

Authors

Dr. med. Arne Schäffler in: Gesundheit heute, edited by Dr. med. Arne Schäffler. Trias, Stuttgart, 3rd edition (2014). Revision and update: Dr. med. Sonja Kempinski | last changed on at 12:32


Important note: This article has been written according to scientific standards and has been checked by medical professionals. The information communicated in this article can in no way replace professional advice in your pharmacy. The content cannot and must not be used to make independent diagnoses or to start therapy.